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We conducted an online survey of weed scientists in the United States and Canada to (1) identify research topics perceived to be important for advancing weed science in the next 5 to 10 years and (2) gain insight into potential gaps in current expertise and funding sources needed to address those priorities. Respondents were asked to prioritize nine broad research areas, as well as 5 to 10 subcategories within each of the broad areas. We received 475 responses, with the majority affiliated with academic institutions (55%) and working in cash crop (agronomic or horticultural) study systems (69%). Results from this survey provide valuable discussion points for policy makers, funding agencies, and academic institutions when allocating resources for weed science research. Notably, our survey reveals a strong prioritization of Cultural and Preventative Weed Management (CPWM) as well as the emerging area of Precision Weed Management and Robotics (PWMR). Although Herbicides remain a high-priority research area, continuing challenges necessitating integrated, nonchemical tactics (e.g., herbicide resistance) and emerging opportunities (e.g., robotics) are reflected in our survey results. Despite previous calls for greater understanding and application of weed biology and ecology in weed research, as well as recent calls for greater integration of social science perspectives to address weed management challenges, these areas were ranked considerably lower than those focused more directly on weed management. Our survey also identified a potential mismatch between research priorities and expertise in several areas, including CPWM, PWMR, and Weed Genomics, suggesting that these topics should be prime targets for expanded training and collaboration. Finally, our survey suggests an increasing reliance on private sector funding for research, raising concerns about our discipline’s capacity to address important research priority areas that lack clear private sector incentives for investment.
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) is a troublesome weed in several cropping systems in the United States. The evolution of resistance to multiple herbicides is a challenge for the management of this weed. Recently, we reported metabolic resistance to 2,4-D possibly mediated by cytochrome P450 (P450) activity in a six-way-resistant A. palmeri population (KCTR). Plant growth temperature can influence the herbicide efficacy and level of resistance. The effect of temperature on 2,4-D resistance in A. palmeri is unknown. In the present research, we investigated the response of KCTR and a known susceptible (MSS) A. palmeri response to 2,4-D grown under low-temperature (LT, 24/14 C, day/night [d/n]) or high-temperature (HT, 34/24 C, d/n) regimes. When MSS and KCTR plants were 8- to 10-cm tall, they were treated with 0, 140, 280, 560 (field recommended dose), 1,120, and 2,240 g ai ha−1 of 2,4-D. Further, 8- to 10-cm-tall MSS and KCTR plants grown at LT and HT were also treated with [14C]2,4-D to assess the metabolism of 2,4-D at LT and HT. The results of dose–response experiments suggest that KCTR A. palmeri exhibits 23 times more resistance to 2,4-D at HT than MSS. Nonetheless, at LT, the resistance to 2,4-D in KCTR was only 2-fold higher than in MSS. Importantly, there was enhanced metabolism of 2,4-D in both KCTR and MSS A. palmeri at HT compared with LT. Further, treatment with the P450 inhibitor malathion, followed by 2,4-D increased the susceptibility of KCTR at HT. Overall, rapid metabolism of 2,4-D increased KCTR resistance to 2,4-D at HT compared with LT. Therefore, the application of 2,4-D when temperatures are cooler can improve control of 2,4-D–resistant A. palmeri.
The herbicides that inhibit 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) are primarily used for weed control in corn, barley, oat, rice, sorghum, sugarcane, and wheat production fields in the United States. The objectives of this review were to summarize 1) the history of HPPD-inhibitor herbicides and their use in the United States; 2) HPPD-inhibitor resistant weeds, their mechanism of resistance, and management; 3) interaction of HPPD-inhibitor herbicides with other herbicides; and 4) the future of HPPD-inhibitor-resistant crops. As of 2022, three broadleaf weeds (Palmer amaranth, waterhemp, and wild radish) have evolved resistance to the HPPD inhibitor. The predominance of metabolic resistance to HPPD inhibitor was found in aforementioned three weed species. Management of HPPD-inhibitor-resistant weeds can be accomplished using alternate herbicides such as glyphosate, glufosinate, 2,4-D, or dicamba; however, metabolic resistance poses a serious challenge, because the weeds may be cross-resistant to other herbicide sites of action, leading to limited herbicide options. An HPPD-inhibitor herbicide is commonly applied with a photosystem II (PS II) inhibitor to increase efficacy and weed control spectrum. The synergism with an HPPD inhibitor arises from depletion of plastoquinones, which allows increased binding of a PS II inhibitor to the D1 protein. New HPPD inhibitors from the azole carboxamides class are in development and expected to be available in the near future. HPPD-inhibitor-resistant crops have been developed through overexpression of a resistant bacterial HPPD enzyme in plants and the overexpression of transgenes for HPPD and a microbial gene that enhances the production of the HPPD substrate. Isoxaflutole-resistant soybean is commercially available, and it is expected that soybean resistant to other HPPD inhibitor herbicides such as mesotrione, stacked with resistance to other herbicides, will be available in the near future.
A Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) population (KCTR: KS Conservation Tillage Resistant) collected from a conservation tillage field was confirmed with resistance to herbicides targeting at least six sites of action, including 2,4-D. The objectives of this research were using KCTR A. palmeri to investigate (1) the level of 2,4-D resistance, (2) 2,4-D absorption and translocation profiles, (3) the rate of 2,4-D metabolism compared with 2,4-D–tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and (4) the possible role of cytochrome P450s (P450s) in mediating resistance. Dose–response experiments were conducted to assess the level of 2,4-D resistance in KCTR compared with susceptible plants, KSS (KS 2,4-D susceptible) and MSS (MS 2,4-D susceptible). KSS, MSS, and KCTR plants were treated with [14C]2,4-D to determine absorption, translocation, and metabolic patterns. Additionally, whole-plant dose–response assays were conducted by treating KCTR and KSS plants with P450 inhibitors (malathion, piperonyl butoxide [PBO]) before 2,4-D application. Dose–response experiments indicated a 6- to 11-fold 2,4-D resistance in KCTR compared with susceptible plants. No difference was found in percent [14C]2,4-D absorption among the populations. However, 10% less and 3 times slower translocation of [14C]2,4-D was found in KCTR compared with susceptible plants. Importantly, [14C]2,4-D was metabolized faster in KCTR than susceptible plants. At 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment (HAT), KCTR metabolized ∼20% to 30% more [14C]2,4-D than susceptible plants. KCTR plants and wheat generated metabolites with similar polarity. Nonetheless, at 24 HAT, ∼70% of [14C]2,4-D was metabolized in wheat, compared with only 30% in KCTR A. palmeri. Application of malathion before 2,4-D increased the sensitivity to 2,4-D in KCTR, suggesting involvement of P450s in mediating 2,4-D metabolism. However, no such impact of PBO was documented. Overall, this study confirms that enhanced metabolism is the primary mechanism of 2,4-D resistance in KCTR.
Carfentrazone-ethyl is one of few herbicides labeled for control of silvery-thread moss (STM) in golf course putting greens, but common use rates are up to three times higher than for broadleaf weeds. Our objective was to determine the efficacy of a single POST application of carfentrazone-ethyl for STM control in greenhouse and field dose response studies. In the greenhouse, carfentrazone-ethyl was applied at 0, 14, 28, 56, 112, and 224 g ai ha–1 to pots containing established STM and creeping bentgrass. Percent gametophyte injury was visually estimated at 14, 28, 49, and 77 d after treatment (DAT). Shoot viability was determined by excising shoots from treated pots and plating them in Petri dishes containing sand. The 28- and 49-DAT ED90 (doses required to cause 90% gametophyte injury) were 26.8 and 54.3 g ha–1, respectively; both of these doses are substantially lower than the label rates for long- and short-term control, respectively. All doses reduced the viability of transplanted shoots at 10 DAT compared to untreated STM; however, regrowth occurred in all Petri dishes by 17 DAT. Field studies were initiated in Manhattan, KS and San Luis Obispo, CA to corroborate greenhouse results. Averaged across locations, carfentrazone-ethyl applied at 56 and 112 g ha–1 caused 76% and 84% STM injury at 14 DAT, but STM injury quickly lessened to 45% and 48% by 28 DAT, respectively. In greenhouse and field studies, STM recovery did not occur until 2 wk after treatment (WAT), which indicates the label-stipulated application interval of 2 wk is too short. Our research suggests that 56 g ha–1 can provide similar burndown control of STM as compared to the highest label rate (112 g ha–1), and turfgrass managers should consider extending the reapplication interval to 3 or 4 wk when moss recovery is observed.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth is a problematic, annual broadleaf weed in soybean production fields in Nebraska and many other states in the United States. Soybean resistant to 2,4-D, glyphosate, and glufosinate (Enlist E3TM) has been developed and was first grown commercially in 2019. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effect of herbicide programs applied PRE, PRE followed by (fb) late-POST (LPOST), and early-POST (EPOST) fb LPOST on GR Palmer amaranth control, density, and biomass reduction, soybean injury, and yield. Field experiments were conducted near Carleton, NE, in 2018, and 2019 in a grower’s field infested with GR Palmer amaranth in 2,4-D–, glyphosate-, and glufosinate-resistant soybean. Sulfentrazone + cloransulam-methyl, imazethapyr + saflufenacil + pyroxasulfone, and chlorimuron ethyl + flumioxazin + metribuzin applied PRE provided 84% to 97% control of GR Palmer amaranth compared with the nontreated control 14 d after PRE. Averaged across herbicide programs, PRE fb 2,4-D and/or glufosinate, and sequential application of 2,4-D or glufosinate applied EPOST fb LPOST resulted in 92% and 88% control of GR Palmer amaranth, respectively, compared with 62% control with PRE-only programs 14 d after LPOST. Reductions in Palmer amaranth biomass followed the same trend; however, Palmer amaranth density was reduced 98% in EPOST fb LPOST programs compared with 91% reduction in PRE fb LPOST and 76% reduction in PRE-only programs. PRE fb LPOST and EPOST fb LPOST programs resulted in an average soybean yield of 4,478 and 4,706 kg ha−1, respectively, compared with 3,043 kg ha−1 in PRE-only programs. Herbicide programs evaluated in this study resulted in no soybean injury. The results of this research illustrate that herbicide programs are available for the management of GR Palmer amaranth in 2,4-D–, glyphosate-, and glufosinate-resistant soybean.
The evolution of resistance to multiple herbicides in Palmer amaranth is a major challenge for its management. In this study, a Palmer amaranth population from Hutchinson, Kansas (HMR), was characterized for resistance to inhibitors of photosystem II (PSII) (e.g., atrazine), acetolactate synthase (ALS) (e.g., chlorsulfuron), and EPSP synthase (EPSPS) (e.g., glyphosate), and this resistance was investigated. About 100 HMR plants were treated with field-recommended doses (1×) of atrazine, chlorsulfuron, and glyphosate, separately along with Hutchinson multiple-herbicide (atrazine, chlorsulfuron, and glyphosate)–susceptible (HMS) Palmer amaranth as control. The mechanism of resistance to these herbicides was investigated by sequencing or amplifying the psbA, ALS, and EPSPS genes, the molecular targets of atrazine, chlorsulfuron, and glyphosate, respectively. Fifty-two percent of plants survived a 1× (2,240 g ai ha−1) atrazine application with no known psbA gene mutation, indicating the predominance of a non–target site resistance mechanism to this herbicide. Forty-two percent of plants survived a 1× (18 g ai ha−1) dose of chlorsulfuron with proline197serine, proline197threonine, proline197alanine, and proline197asparagine, or tryptophan574leucine mutations in the ALS gene. About 40% of the plants survived a 1× (840 g ae ha−1) dose of glyphosate with no known mutations in the EPSPS gene. Quantitative PCR results revealed increased EPSPS copy number (50 to 140) as the mechanism of glyphosate resistance in the survivors. The most important finding of this study was the evolution of resistance to at least two sites of action (SOAs) (~50% of plants) and to all three herbicides due to target site as well as non–target site mechanisms. The high incidence of individual plants with resistance to multiple SOAs poses a challenge for effective management of this weed.
Rapid growth of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) poses a challenge for timely management of this weed. Dose–response studies were conducted in 2017 and 2018 under field and greenhouse conditions near Garden City and Manhattan, KS, respectively, to evaluate the efficacy of dicamba to control ≤10-, 15-cm, and 30-cm-tall A. palmeri, which mimics three herbicide application timings: on-time application (Day 0) and 1- (Day 1) and 4-d (Day 4) delays. Visual injury rating and reduction in shoot biomass (% of nontreated), and mortality were assessed at 4 wk after treatment using a three- and four-parameter log-logistic model in R. Increasing dicamba doses increased A. palmeri control regardless of plant height in both the field and greenhouse studies. The results suggest that delaying application 1 (15 cm) and 4 d (30 cm) resulted in 2- and 27-fold increases in the effective dose of dicamba on A. palmeri, respectively, under field conditions. However, in the greenhouse, for the same level of A. palmeri control, more than 1- and 2-fold increases in dicamba dose, respectively, were required. Similarly, the effective dose of dicamba required for 50% reduction in A. palmeri shoot biomass (GR50) increased more than 4- and 8-fold or more than 1- and 2-fold when dicamba application was delayed by 1 (15 cm) and 4 d (30 cm), in the field or in the greenhouse, respectively. To understand the basis of increased efficacy of dicamba in controlling early growth stages of A. palmeri, dicamba absorption and translocation studies were conducted. Results indicate a significant reduction in dicamba absorption (7%) and translocation (15%) with increase in A. palmeri height. Therefore, increased absorption and translocation of dicamba results in increased efficacy in improving A. palmeri control at early growth stages.
Several grass and broadleaf weed species around the world have evolved multiple-herbicide resistance at alarmingly increasing rates. Research on the biochemical and molecular resistance mechanisms of multiple-resistant weed populations indicate a prevalence of herbicide metabolism catalyzed by enzyme systems such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferases and, to a lesser extent, by glucosyl transferases. A symposium was conducted to gain an understanding of the current state of research on metabolic resistance mechanisms in weed species that pose major management problems around the world. These topics, as well as future directions of investigations that were identified in the symposium, are summarized herein. In addition, the latest information on selected topics such as the role of safeners in inducing crop tolerance to herbicides, selectivity to clomazone, glyphosate metabolism in crops and weeds, and bioactivation of natural molecules is reviewed.
Kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A. J. Scott] is one of the most troublesome weeds throughout the North American Great Plains. Herbicides such as glyphosate and dicamba have been used widely to control B. scoparia for decades. However, many B. scoparia populations have evolved resistance to these herbicides due to selection. Especially, dicamba-resistant B. scoparia populations are often also found to be glyphosate-resistant. The objective of this research was to determine whether these two herbicide resistances are linked in B. scoparia. Reciprocal crosses were performed between glyphosate- and dicamba-resistant (GDR) and glyphosate- and dicamba-susceptible (GDS) B. scoparia to produce F1 and F2 progeny. Two F1 and seven F2 progeny families were screened with various doses of dicamba or glyphosate. All the F1 progeny survived both dicamba and glyphosate treatments. Chi-square analyses of F2 progeny suggest (1) glyphosate and dicamba resistances in B. scoparia are inherited via single, dominant nuclear genes; and (2) glyphosate- and dicamba-resistant genes are not linked. Thus, the dicamba and glyphosate resistances appear to have evolved independently due to intense selection but do not seem to spread together.
Kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A. J. Scott] is a problematic annual broadleaf weed species in the North American Great Plains. Bassia scoparia inherits unique biological characteristics that contribute to its propensity to evolve herbicide resistance. Evolution of glyphosate resistance in B. scoparia has become a serious threat to the major cropping systems and soil conservation practices in the region. Bassia scoparia populations with resistance to four different herbicide sites of action are a concern for growers. The widespread occurrence of multiple herbicide–resistant (HR) B. scoparia across the North American Great Plains has renewed research efforts to devise integrated weed management strategies beyond herbicide use. In this review, we aim to compile and document the growing body of literature on HR B. scoparia with emphasis on herbicide-resistance evolutionary dynamics, distribution, mechanisms of evolved resistance, agronomic impacts, and current/future weed management technologies. We focused on ecologically based, non-herbicidal strategies such as diverse crop rotations comprising winter cereals and perennial forages, enhanced crop competition, cover crops, harvest weed seed control (HWSC), and tillage to manage HR B. scoparia seedbanks. Remote sensing using hyperspectral imaging and other sensor-based technologies would be valuable for early detection and rapid response and site-specific herbicide resistance management. We propose research priorities based on an improved understanding of the biology, genetic diversity, and plasticity of this weed that will aid in preserving existing herbicide resources and designing sustainable, integrated HR B. scoparia mitigation plans.
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) is the most problematic weed in agronomic crop production fields in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of degree of water stress on the growth and fecundity of A. palmeri using soil moisture sensors under greenhouse conditions. Two A. palmeri biotypes collected from Nebraska were grown in loam soil maintained at 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 12.5% soil field capacity (FC) corresponding to no, light, moderate, high, and severe water stress levels, respectively. Water was regularly added to pots based on soil moisture levels detected by Watermark or Decagon 5TM sensors to maintain the desired water stress level. Amaranthus palmeri plants maintained at ≤25% FC did not survive more than 35 d after transplanting. Amaranthus palmeri at 100%, 75%, and 50% FC produced similar numbers of leaves (588 to 670 plant−1) based on model estimates; however, plants at 100% FC achieved a maximum height of 178 cm compared with 124 and 88 cm at 75% and 50% FC, respectively. The growth index (1.1×105 to 1.4×105 cm3 plant−1) and total leaf area (571 to 693 cm2 plant−1) were also similar at 100%, 75%, and 50% FC. Amaranthus palmeri produced similar root biomass (2.3 to 3 g plant−1) at 100%, 75%, and 50% FC compared with 0.6 to 0.7 g plant−1 at 25% and 12.5% FC, respectively. Seed production was greatest (42,000 seeds plant−1) at 100% FC compared with 75% and 50% FC (14,000 to 19,000 seeds plant−1); however, the cumulative seed germination was similar (38% to 46%) when mother plants were exposed to ≥50% FC. The results of this study show that A. palmeri can survive ≥50% FC continuous water stress conditions and can produce a significant number of seeds with no effect of on seed germination.
Recently, several incidents of glyphosate failure on junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] have been reported in the midsouthern United States, specifically in Mississippi and Tennessee. Research was conducted to measure the magnitude of glyphosate resistance and to determine the mechanism(s) of resistance to glyphosate in E. colona populations from Mississippi and Tennessee. ED50 (dose required to reduce plant growth by 50%) values for a resistant MSGR4 biotype, a resistant TNGR population, and a known susceptible MSGS population were 0.8, 1.62, and 0.23 kg ae ha−1 of glyphosate, respectively. The resistance index calculated from the these ED50 values indicated that the MSGR4 biotype and TNGR population were 4- and 7-fold, respectively, resistant to glyphosate relative to the MSGS population. The absorption patterns of [14C]glyphosate in the TNGR and MSGS populations were similar. However, the MSGS population translocated 13% more [14C]glyphosate out of the treated leaf compared with the TNGR population at 48 h after treatment. EPSPS gene sequence analyses of TNGR E. colona indicated no evidence of any point mutations, but several resistant biotypes, including MSGR4, possessed a single-nucleotide substitution of T for C at codon 106 position, resulting in a proline-to-serine substitution (CCA to TCA). Results from quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses suggested that there was no amplification of the EPSPS gene in the resistant populations and biotypes. Thus, the mechanism of resistance in the MSGR population (and associated biotypes) is, in part, due to a target-site mutation at the 106 loci of the EPSPS gene, while reduced translocation of glyphosate was found to confer glyphosate resistance in the TNGR population.
Resistance to atrazine (a photosystem II [PSII] inhibitor) is prevalent in waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J. D. Sauer] across the U.S. Midwest. Previous research suggests that target-site mutation or rapid metabolism of atrazine mediated by glutathione S-transferase (GST) conjugation confers resistance in A. tuberculatus from Illinois. The distribution and mechanism of resistance to atrazine in A. tuberculatus populations from Nebraska (NE) are unknown. In this research we (1) evaluated the response and frequency of resistance in NE A. tuberculatus to soil-applied PSII (metribuzin and atrazine) and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (sulfentrazone) inhibitors, as well as POST-applied atrazine; and (2) determined the mechanism of atrazine resistance in NE A. tuberculatus. The chloroplastic psbA gene, coding for a D1 protein (the target site of atrazine) was sequenced in 85 plants representing 27 populations of A. tuberculatus. Furthermore, 24 plants selected randomly from four atrazine-resistant (AR) populations were used to determine the metabolism of atrazine via GST conjugation. Results from the soil-applied herbicide evaluation suggest that metribuzin (0.56 kg ai ha−1) and sulfentrazone (0.28 kg ai ha−1) were effective on A. tuberculatus management. PRE and POST screenings against atrazine in the greenhouse indicate that atrazine (1.345 kg ai ha−1) was not effective on 39% and 73% of the A. tuberculatus populations evaluated (total of 109 and 85 populations, respectively), suggesting the prevalence of atrazine resistance in A. tuberculatus in NE. Sequence analysis of the psbA gene found no known point mutations conferring atrazine resistance. However, the AR plants conjugated atrazine via GST activity faster than the known atrazine-susceptible A. tuberculatus. Overall, the outcome of this study demonstrates the predominance of metabolism-based resistance to atrazine in A. tuberculatus from NE, which may predispose this species to evolve resistance to other herbicides. The use of integrated management strategies for A. tuberculatus is crucial for the control of this troublesome species.
Plant growth stage and temperature influence the activity of glyphosate on common lambsquarters. A biotype of common lambsquarters in Dickinson County, KS (DK) was not controlled upon treatment with glyphosate in the field. In a greenhouse dose–response study, the DK biotype expressed 1.5-fold less sensitivity to glyphosate compared to a known susceptible biotype from Riley County, KS (RL). Common lambsquarters plants were treated at different growth stages (5 to 7, 10 to 12, 15 to 17, or 19 to 21 cm tall) with glyphosate at a field rate (840 g ae ha–1), and, regardless of the biotype, plants were more susceptible to glyphosate when they were 5 to 7 cm tall. Common lambsquarters plants were treated with glyphosate (840 g ae ha–1) after growing at different temperatures (25/15, 32.5/22.5, or 40/30 C day/night), and regardless of the biotype, plants were more susceptible to glyphosate when grown at 25/15 C. The results suggest that the DK biotype exhibits reduced sensitivity to glyphosate compared to the RL biotype, and glyphosate applied at field rate would be more effective on smaller common lambsquarters plants and at cooler temperatures. Common lambsquarters seedlings tend to emerge when temperatures are cooler, early in the spring relative to other summer annual weeds. Therefore, plants should be identified and treated earlier in the growing season for best efficacy with glyphosate.
Palmer amaranth, a dioecious summer annual weed species, is the most troublesome weed in agronomic crop production systems in the United States. Palmer amaranth resistant to photosystem (PS) II- and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitors is of particular concern in south central Nebraska. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of PRE followed by POST herbicide programs on PS II- and HPPD-inhibitor-resistant Palmer amaranth control, crop yield, and net economic return in conventional corn. A field study was conducted in 2014, 2015, and 2016 in a grower’s field infested with PS II- and HPPD-inhibitor-resistant Palmer amaranth near Shickley in Fillmore County, Nebraska. A contrast analysis suggested that mesotrione+S-metolachlor+atrazine applied PRE provided 83% Palmer amaranth control at 21 d after application compared to 78 and 72% control with pyroxasulfone+fluthiacet-ethyl+atrazine and saflufenacil+dimethenamid-P, respectively. Most of the PRE followed by POST herbicide programs provided ≥85% Palmer amaranth control. Based on contrast analysis, POST application of dicamba+diflufenzopyr provided 93% Palmer amaranth control compared to 87, 79, and 42% control with dicamba, dicamba+halosulfuron, and acetochlor, respectively, at 28 d after POST. All PRE followed by POST herbicide programs, aside from mesotrione+S-metolachlor+atrazine followed by acetochlor (2,530 to 7,809 kg ha−1), provided 9,550 to 10,500 kg ha−1 corn yield compared with 2,713 to 6,110 kg ha−1 from nontreated control. Similarly, PRE followed by POST herbicide programs, except for mesotrione+S-metolachlor+atrazine followed by acetochlor ($191 and $897 ha−1), provided similar net return of $427 to $707 ha−1 and $1,127 to $1,727 ha−1 in 2014 and 2015-16, respectively. It is concluded that herbicide programs based on multiple sites of action are available for control of PS II- and HPPD-inhibitor-resistant Palmer amaranth in conventional corn.
Dicamba-resistant crops are being rapidly embraced by growers in the United States to manage glyphosate-resistant and other difficult-to-control broadleaf weeds. However, dicamba resistance in kochia, one of the troublesome weeds of the North American Great Plains, is already widespread. Hence, POST application of dicamba may not adequately control kochia. In recent years in the High Plains Region of Colorado, Kansas, and Nebraska, dicamba has been widely applied, often in combination with atrazine or metribuzin, in early spring for PRE control of kochia. However, there is concern this use pattern may increase the selection for dicamba-resistant (DR) kochia. Hence, there is need to understand the efficacy of dicamba applied PRE versus POST for managing DR kochia. A greenhouse study was conducted to test the efficacy of PRE-applied dicamba compared with POST application using both DR and dicamba-susceptible (DS) kochia. Efficacies of PRE-applied dicamba were compared at seeding densities of 300, 600, 900 and 1200 viable seed m−2. At eight weeks after PRE and four weeks after POST treatment, control of DR kochia seeded at 300 viable seed m−2 was improved from 10% with 560 g ae ha−1 dicamba applied POST to 94 and 97% with 350 and 420 g ha−1 dicamba applied PRE, respectively. However, the efficacy of PRE-applied dicamba was negatively correlated with seed density. When kochia seeding density was increased from 300 to 1200 seed m−2, the ED50 of PRE-applied dicamba increased from 237 to 705 g ae ha−1 for DR kochia, and from 129 to 361 g ae ha−1 for DS kochia, respectively. Thus, PRE-applied dicamba was effective in controlling the population of DR kochia tested, suggesting that PRE-applied dicamba may still provide substantial control of some DR kochia populations. However, it is not advisable to apply dicamba alone for PRE kochia control.
Resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitor herbicides due to continuous and repeated selection is widespread in many troublesome weed species, including Palmer amaranth, throughout the United States. The objective of this research was to investigate the physiological and molecular basis of resistance to ALS inhibitors in a chlorsulfuron-resistant Palmer amaranth population (KSR). Our results indicate that the KSR population exhibits a high level of resistance to chlorsulfuron compared with two known susceptible populations, MSS and KSS from Mississippi and Kansas, respectively. MSS is highly susceptible to chlorsulfuron, whereas KSS is moderately sensitive. Dose–response analysis revealed that KSR was more than 275-fold more resistant compared with KSS. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the ALS gene from the plants that survived chlorsulfuron treatment revealed the possibility of evolution of both target site–based and non–target site based resistance to ALS inhibitors in the KSR population. The most common mutation (Pro-197-Ser) in the ALS gene associated with resistance to the sulfonylureas in many weed species was found only in 30% of the KSR population. A preliminary malathion study showed that the remaining 70% of resistant plants might have cytochrome P450–mediated non–target site resistance. This is the first report elucidating the mechanism of resistance to ALS inhibitors in Palmer amaranth from Kansas. Presence of both target site– and non–target site based mechanisms of resistance limits the herbicide options to manage Palmer amaranth in cropping systems.
Glyphosate and 2,4-D have been commonly used for control of common and giant ragweed before planting of corn and soybean in the midwestern United States. Because these herbicides are primarily applied in early spring, environmental factors such as temperature may influence their efficacy. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the influence of temperature on the efficacy of 2,4-D or glyphosate for common and giant ragweed control and the level of glyphosate resistance and (2) determine the underlying physiological mechanisms (absorption and translocation). Glyphosate-susceptible (GS) and glyphosate-resistant (GR) common and giant ragweed biotypes from Nebraska were used for glyphosate dose–response studies, and GR biotypes were used for 2,4-D dose–response studies conducted at two temperatures (day/night [d/n]; low temperature [LT]: 20/11 C d/n; high temperature [HT]: 29/17 C d/n). Results indicate improved efficacy of 2,4-D or glyphosate at HT compared with LT for common and giant ragweed control regardless of susceptibility or resistance to glyphosate. The level of glyphosate resistance decreased in both the species at HT compared with LT, primarily due to more translocation at HT. More translocation of 2,4-D in GR common and giant ragweed at HT compared with LT at 96 h after treatment could be the reason for improved efficacy. Similarly, higher translocation in common ragweed and increased absorption and translocation in giant ragweed resulted in greater efficacy of glyphosate at HT compared with LT. It is concluded that the efficacy of 2,4-D or glyphosate for common and giant ragweed control can be improved if applied at warm temperatures (29/17 C d/n) due to increased absorption and/or translocation compared with applications during cooler temperatures (20/11 C d/n).