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The association of soft drink consumption with mental problems in Asian adolescents has not been reported. The present study aimed to investigate the association of soft drink consumption and symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescents in China.
A cross-sectional study to investigate the association of intake of soft drinks and sugars from soft drinks with symptoms of anxiety and depression measured by the two-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-2) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), respectively.
A comprehensive university in Changsha, China.
Newly enrolled college students in 2017.
In total, 8226 students completed the investigation and 8085 students with no systemic disorders were finally analysed. Students consuming soft drinks ≥7 times/week had significantly higher (mean difference; 95 % CI) GAD-2 (0·15; 0·07, 0·23) and PHQ-2 (0·27; 0·19, 0·35) scores compared with those barely consuming soft drinks, adjusted for demographic and behavioural factors. Those consuming >25 g sugar/d from soft drinks had significantly higher GAD-2 (0·11; 0·04, 0·18) and PHQ-2 (0·22; 0·15, 0·29) scores compared with non-consumers. The mediation effect of obesity in the associations was not clinically significant.
Adolescents consuming soft drinks ≥7 times/week, or >25 g sugar/d from soft drinks, had significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression. Dietary suggestion is needed to prevent anxiety and depression in adolescents.
To examine the association between BMI and folate concentrations in serum and red blood cells (RBC) in pregnant women.
A cross-sectional comparison of folate concentrations in serum and RBC sampled simultaneously from the same individual.
The Ottawa Hospital and Kingston General Hospital, Ontario, Canada.
Pregnant women recruited between 12 and 20 weeks of gestation.
A total of 869 pregnant women recruited from April 2008 to April 2009 were included in the final analysis. Serum folate was inversely associated and RBC folate positively associated with BMI, after adjusting for folic acid supplementation, age, gestational age at blood sample collection, race, maternal education, annual income, smoking and MTHFR 677C→T genotype. In stratified analyses, this differential association was significant in women with the MTHFR CC variant. In women with the CT and TT variants, the differential associations were in the same direction but not significant. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy did not alter the differential association of BMI with serum and RBC folate concentration. This indicates that the current RBC folate cut-off approach for assessing risk of neural tube defects in obese women may be limited.
BMI is inversely associated with serum folate and positively associated with RBC folate in pregnant women, especially for those with the MTHFR CC variant.
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