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Refractory depression is a major contributor to the economic burden of depression. Radically open dialectical behaviour therapy (RO DBT) is an unevaluated new treatment targeting overcontrolled personality, common in refractory depression, but it is not yet known whether the additional expense of RO DBT is good value for money.
To estimate the cost-effectiveness of RO DBT plus treatment as usual (TAU) compared with TAU alone in people with refractory depression (trial registration: ISRCTN85784627).
We undertook a cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a randomised trial evaluating RO DBT plus TAU versus TAU alone for refractory depression in three UK secondary care centres. Our economic evaluation, 12 months after randomisation, adopted the perspective of the UK National Health Service (NHS) and personal social services. It evaluated cost-effectiveness by comparing the net cost of RO DBT with the net gain in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), estimated using the EQ-5D-3L measure of health-related quality of life.
The additional cost of RO DBT plus TAU compared with TAU alone was £7048 and was associated with a difference of 0.032 QALYs, yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £220 250 per QALY. This ICER was well above the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) upper threshold of £30 000 per QALY. A cost-effectiveness acceptability curve indicated that RO DBT had a zero probability of being cost-effective compared with TAU at the NICE £30 000 threshold.
In its current resource-intensive form, RO DBT is not a cost-effective use of resources in the UK NHS.
Declaration of interest
R.H. is co-owner and director of Radically Open Ltd, the RO DBT training and dissemination company. D.K. reports grants outside the submitted work from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). T.L. receives royalties from New Harbinger Publishing for sales of RO DBT treatment manuals, speaking fees from Radically Open Ltd, and a grant outside the submitted work from the Medical Research Council. He was co-director of Radically Open Ltd between November 2014 and May 2015 and is married to Erica Smith-Lynch, the principal shareholder and one of two directors of Radically Open Ltd. H.O'M. reports personal fees outside the submitted work from the Charlie Waller Institute and Improving Access to Psychological Therapy. S.R. provides RO DBT supervision through her company S C Rushbrook Ltd. I.R. reports grants outside the submitted work from NIHR and Health & Care Research Wales. M. Stanton reports personal fees outside the submitted work from British Isles DBT Training, Stanton Psychological Services Ltd and Taylor & Francis. M. Swales reports personal fees outside the submitted work from British Isles DBT Training, Guilford Press, Oxford University Press and Taylor & Francis. B.W. was co-director of Radically Open Ltd between November 2014 and February 2015.
Individuals with depression often do not respond to medication or psychotherapy. Radically open dialectical behaviour therapy (RO DBT) is a new treatment targeting overcontrolled personality, common in refractory depression.
To compare RO DBT plus treatment as usual (TAU) for refractory depression with TAU alone (trial registration: ISRCTN 85784627).
RO DBT comprised 29 therapy sessions and 27 skills classes over 6 months. Our completed randomised trial evaluated RO DBT for refractory depression over 18 months in three British secondary care centres. Of 250 adult participants, we randomised 162 (65%) to RO DBT. The primary outcome was the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), assessed masked and analysed by treatment allocated.
After 7 months, immediately following therapy, RO DBT had significantly reduced depressive symptoms by 5.40 points on the HRSD relative to TAU (95% CI 0.94–9.85). After 12 months (primary end-point), the difference of 2.15 points on the HRSD in favour of RO DBT was not significant (95% CI –2.28 to 6.59); nor was that of 1.69 points on the HRSD at 18 months (95% CI –2.84 to 6.22). Throughout RO DBT participants reported significantly better psychological flexibility and emotional coping than controls. However, they reported eight possible serious adverse reactions compared with none in the control group.
The RO DBT group reported significantly lower HRSD scores than the control group after 7 months, but not thereafter. The imbalance in serious adverse reactions was probably because of the controls' limited opportunities to report these.
Implementing change in organizational systems is challenging, and implementing a new psychotherapeutic approach is no different. A literature exists on issues in implementation across a wide range of domains (technological, healthcare, justice). However, little of it is utilized in endeavours to implement innovations in psychological treatments. This paper draws on the implementation literature and on the experiences of the British Isles DBT Training Team (BIDBT) in implementing Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) in mental healthcare systems in the UK over the last 13 years. This paper describes principles and strategies of ‘organizational pre-treatment’ as a necessary prerequisite to implementation.
NICE Clinical Guideline no. 78 recently identified Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) as an appropriate treatment approach for the effective treatment of suicidal behaviours in the context of borderline personality disorder. Uniquely among the cognitive behavioural therapies DBT is a team-based treatment. This paper focuses on the task of selecting and training a team before considering issues in the training and supervision of therapists learning this approach.
Jonathan Hill, Child and Development Psychiatry, Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital, UK,
Michaela Swales, Child and Development Psychiatry, Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital, UK,
Marie Byatt, Child and Development Psychiatry, Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital, UK
‘Personality disorder’ (PD) is a term that is used in a variety of ways, some helpful and some less so. It can be synonymous with ‘not treatable’, ‘not within the remit of mental health services’, or even ‘nasty’. This chapter does not refer to any of these. We are referring to relatively persistent maladaptive behaviours and patterns of interpersonal and social role functioning, that are not readily accounted for by discrete episodes of psychiatric disorder.
The available definitions of personality disorder specify that it cannot be diagnosed before age 18. In many respects this simply reflects that many of the identifying features of the personality disorders refer to functioning within adult social roles. It might also be sensible to reserve the term for adults if it were clear that childhood and adolescence is essentially a period of transition and change, contrasted with adult life as a time during which change is unlikely, and if it were to be used to denote that the problems were not open to change. However there is ample evidence for strong continuities in some relevant characteristics, such as aggression and anxious inhibition over childhood and adolescence, and for the possibilities for change during adult life. Furthermore, it is not helpful to include inability to change in the definition of personality disorder. That is an issue that is available for empirical study in relation to different patterns of disorder.
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