Pyrethroids are the insecticides of choice for the treatment of bednets for malaria control. Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles spp. vectors may adversely impact malaria control measures, and therefore it is important to know the initial level of pyrethroid resistance before pyrethroid-treated bednets are introduced. Furthermore, a search for replacement insecticides is necessary to manage any eventual high-resistance levels to pyrethroid insecticides that may affect the effectiveness of treated bednets. This study reports on the susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae s.s. exposed for 1 h to the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin and the carbamate insecticide propoxur, at eight localities in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. The observed mortality rates ranged between 21–92% and 92–100% to permethrin and propoxur, respectively. The results also showed a reduction in the knockdown time (KD50 and KD95) in propoxur (mean KD50 = 20 min and mean KD95 = 31 min) when compared with permethrin (mean KD50 = 47 min and mean KD95 = 87 min). The results suggest that permethrin may not be effective in all areas. Where pyrethroid resistance is a problem, propoxur could be an alternative for indoor residual spraying and for insecticide-treated materials such as curtains and eave screens.