The aim of the research presented is to determine the influence of socio-economic factors in childhood and mid-life on multiple tooth loss and chewing problems in mid- and late life in three Swedish birth cohorts (1903–1910, 1911–1920 and 1921–1925). Longitudinal national Swedish surveys were used for the analysis. Participants were interviewed in mid-life in 1968 and later in life (77–99 years of age) in 2002. Childhood socio-economic positions (SEP) did not result in different odds of multiple tooth loss and chewing problems in mid- and late life, but persons with higher mid-life SEP had lower odds. Persons born into the 1921–1925 birth cohort had significantly lower odds of multiple tooth loss in late life than the 1903–1910 birth cohort. Women had higher odds of losing multiple teeth than men in late life but not mid-life. Neither gender nor childhood and mid-life SEP predicted chewing problems late in life, but older people with multiple tooth loss had higher odds of chewing difficulty than those with mainly natural teeth. Childhood conditions may contribute to multiple tooth loss in mid-life, which subsequently contributes to multiple tooth loss in late life. Tooth loss in late life is strongly associated with difficulty chewing hard food. Prevalence of multiple tooth loss is higher in women than in men in late life but not in mid-life.