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Simulation plays an integral role in the Canadian healthcare system with applications in quality improvement, systems development, and medical education. High-quality, simulation-based research will ensure its effective use. This study sought to summarize simulation-based research activity and its facilitators and barriers, as well as establish priorities for simulation-based research in Canadian emergency medicine (EM).
Simulation-leads from Canadian departments or divisions of EM associated with a general FRCP-EM training program surveyed and documented active EM simulation-based research at their institutions and identified the perceived facilitators and barriers. Priorities for simulation-based research were generated by simulation-leads via a second survey; these were grouped into themes and finally endorsed by consensus during an in-person meeting of simulation leads. Priority themes were also reviewed by senior simulation educators.
Twenty simulation-leads representing all 14 invited institutions participated in the study between February and May, 2018. Sixty-two active, simulation-based research projects were identified (median per institution = 4.5, IQR 4), as well as six common facilitators and five barriers. Forty-nine priorities for simulation-based research were reported and summarized into eight themes: simulation in competency-based medical education, simulation for inter-professional learning, simulation for summative assessment, simulation for continuing professional development, national curricular development, best practices in simulation-based education, simulation-based education outcomes, and simulation as an investigative methodology.
This study summarized simulation-based research activity in EM in Canada, identified its perceived facilitators and barriers, and built national consensus on priority research themes. This represents the first step in the development of a simulation-based research agenda specific to Canadian EM.
The spatially uneven nature of the impacts of the Irish Famine have been recognised by both historians and geographers and research that has examined the Famine at various spatial scales has shed much light on its uneven impact on the human landscape of mid-1840s Ireland. However, the regionally varied nature of the event makes it difficult to understand its impacts at the national scale. This is because of the difficulty of assessing the extent to which local processes that may have contributed to the worsening of conditions for people in different areas operated at the national scale. The emphasis on local areas that characterises much of the literature on the Irish Famine in part contributes to this difficulty. We have much detailed research for particular villages, parishes, poor law unions and counties, but little comparative or national analysis. Recent research has attempted to bridge the gap between local and national perspectives on the Famine by constructing a geographical information systems (GIS) database of local attributes at electoral division (ED) level for the entire island. Electoral divisions are administrative units first introduced to Ireland in the mid-1840s for the purposes of rate collection and were also used as the unit for census data collection. There were 3,439 such divisions in Ireland at this time.
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