Predictions of the mechanical response of polycrystalline metals and underlying microstructure evolution and deformation mechanisms are critically important for the manufacturing and design of metallic components, especially those made of new advanced metals that aim to outperform those in use today. In this review article, recent advancements in modeling deformation processing-microstructure evolution and in microstructure–property relationships of polycrystalline metals are covered. While some notable examples will use standard crystal plasticity models, such as self-consistent and Taylor-type models, the emphasis is placed on more advanced full-field models such as crystal plasticity finite elements and Green’s function-based models. These models allow for nonhomogeneity in the mechanical fields leading to greater insight and predictive capability at the mesoscale. Despite the strides made, it still remains a mesoscale modeling challenge to incorporate in the same model the role of influential microstructural features and the dynamics of underlying mechanisms. The article ends with recommendations for improvements in computational speed.