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The aim of this paper is to review evidence on Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) administered via telephone (IPT-T).
We conducted a systematic review of studies published between January 1, 1990 and June 30, 2020, assessing the efficacy of IPT administered by phone, using PubMed.
Originally, we found 60 papers; the final selection led to 13 papers. Six studies were performed using a randomized clinical trial methodology (6/13, 46.2%), three were prospective open-label not randomized studies (3/13, 15.7%), three were pilot studies (3/13, 23.1%), and one was a feasibility/acceptance study (1/13, 7.7%). The number of subjects included in the studies ranged between 14 and 442 (mean: 140.0 ± 124.9), for a total of 1850 patients. The mean age of the enrolled subjects was 47.8 ± 9.3 years (range: 27.4-70.4). Thirty-four different instruments were utilized. Qualitative synthesis was conducted only on randomized controlled trials (RCTs), namely on six studies. RCTs were almost all of good quality (mean score/standard deviation of the RCT-Psychotherapy Quality Rating Scale omnibus rating: 5.6 ± 1.2 points; range: 3-7).
IPT-T showed response rates similar to IPT administered in the usual way. Results are limited by small samples sizes, selection bias of the less severe depressed patients, and the heterogeneity of rating scales.
The present paper aims at reviewing and commenting on the relationships between sleep and circadian phasing alterations and neurodegenerative/neuroprogressive processes in mood disorder. We carried out a systematic review, according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, in PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase electronic databases for literature related to mood disorders, sleep disturbances, and neurodegenerative/neuroprogressive processes in relation to (1) neuroinflammation, (2) activation of the stress system, (3) oxidative stress, (4) accumulation of neurotoxic proteins, and (5) neuroprotection deficit. Seventy articles were collectively selected and analyzed. Experimental and clinical studies revealed that insomnia, conditions of sleep loss, and altered circadian sleep may favor neurodegeneration and neuroprogression in mood disorders. These sleep disturbances may induce a state of chronic inflammation by enhancing neuroinflammation, both directly and indirectly, via microglia and astrocytes activation. They may act as neurobiological stressors that by over-activating the stress system may negatively influence neural plasticity causing neuronal damage. In addition, sleep disturbances may favor the accumulation of neurotoxic proteins, favor oxidative stress, and a deficit in neuroprotection hence contributing to neurodegeneration and neuroprogression. Targeting sleep disturbances in the clinical practice may hold a neuroprotective value for mood disorders.
To explore relationships among post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive spectrum symptoms, and intrusiveness in subjects who survived the crash of a train derailed carrying liquefied petroleum gas and exploded causing a fire.
A sample of 111 subjects was enrolled in Viareggio, Italy. AMOS version 21 (IBM Corp, 2012) was utilized for a structural equation model-path analysis to model the direct and indirect links between the exposure to the traumatic event, the occurrence of depressive symptoms, and intrusiveness. Subjects were administered with the SCID-IV (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV), the Questionnaire for Mood Spectrum (MOODS-SR)-Last Month version, the Trauma and Loss Spectrum Questionnaire (TALS-SR), and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised version (IES-R).
Sixty-six (66/111; 59.4%) subjects met SCID-IV criteria for PTSD. Indices of goodness of fit were as followed: χ2/df = 0.2 P = .6; comparative fit index = 1 and root mean square error of approximation = 0.0001. A significant path coefficient for direct effect of potential traumatic events on depressive symptoms (β = 0.25; P < .04) and from depressive symptoms to intrusiveness (β = 0.34; P < .003) was found. An indirect effect was also observed: standardized value of potential traumatic events on intrusiveness was 0.86. The mediating factor of this indirect effect path was represented by depressive symptoms. Potential traumatic events explained 6.2% of the variance of depressive symptoms; 11.8% of the variance of intrusiveness was accounted for traumatic event and depressive symptoms.
Path analysis led us to speculate that depression symptoms might have mediated the relationship between the exposure to potential traumatic events and intrusiveness for the onset of PTSD.
To investigate if sleep disturbances may affect treatment outcomes of patients with panic disorder (PD).
Eighty-five PD outpatients with no Axis I comorbidity for mood disorders completed a baseline assessment (T1) and were evaluated after 3 (T2), 6 (T3) and 12 months (T4), with the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) total score as outcome measure during a 12-month naturalistic follow-up. Patients were assessed with the Mood Spectrum Self-Report (MOODS-SR, Lifetime Version), and the PDSS.
Forty-three patients (50.5%) met criteria for remission (PDSS<5) and 42 (49.5%) for no remission. In a logistic regression model with remission as the dependent variable, MOODS-SR sleep disturbances was the only determinant for a lower likelihood of PD remission. The items accounting for this result were the following: Repeated difficulty falling asleep (chi-square = 4.4; df = 1; p = 0.036), and Repeatedly waking up in the middle of the night (chi-square = 5.2; df = 1; p = 0.022).
Lifetime sleep disturbances would represent a cue of mood spectrum (in absence of overt affective comorbidity) that may impair remission in PD.
The aim of this review was to summarize evidence from research on psychopharmacological options for adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Database searches of MEDLINE and PsycINFO (from January 1966 to January 2014) were performed, and original articles published as full papers, brief reports, case reports, or case series were included. Forty-one papers were screened in detail, and salient characteristics of pharmacological options for AN were summarized for drug classes. The body of evidence for the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in AN was unsatisfactory, the quality of observations was questionable (eg, the majority were not blinded), and sample size was often small. More trials are needed, while considering that nonresponse and nonremission are typical of patients with AN.
Panic disorder occurs frequently with different forms of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. The 13 panic symptoms described in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) often overlap with manifestations of cardiovascular disorders, raising problems in the differential diagnosis. In order to explore in greater detail the phenomenology of panic symptoms in cardiovascular patients, the Structured Clinical Interview for Panic-Agoraphobic Spectrum (SCI-PAS) was administered to 111 patients with hypertension and 29 patients with a recent myocardial infarction.
With regard to the frequency of endorsement of many of the symptoms assessed on the SCI-PAS, more than 40% of the cardiovascular patients who failed to meet the DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder did not significantly differ from the 10% of cardiovascular patients who did fulfill the criteria for panic disorder. A third distinct subgroup comprising 48.6% of the cardiovascular patients reported a significantly smaller number of SCI-PAS symptoms than the other two groups.
These preliminary findings suggest the existence of a relatively large proportion of cardiovascular patients who present with physical and psychological symptoms that are potentially related to panic disorder and that may provoke considerable subjective distress. Further studies are needed to clarify the nature of these symptoms and their potential interference with treatment and symptomatology of cardiovascular disease.
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