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To describe a Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)–producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) outbreak and interventions to prevent transmission.
Design, Setting, and Patients.
Epidemiologic investigation of a CRE outbreak among patients at a long-term acute care hospital (LTACH).
Microbiology records at LTACH A from March 2009 through February 2011 were reviewed to identify CRE transmission cases and cases admitted with CRE. CRE bacteremia episodes were identified during March 2009–July 2011. Biweekly CRE prevalence surveys were conducted during July 2010–July 2011, and interventions to prevent transmission were implemented, including education and auditin? of staff and isolation and cohorting of CRE patients with dedicated nursing staff and shared medical equipment. Trends were evaluated using weighted linear or Poisson regression. CRE transmission cases were included in a case-control study to evaluate risk factors for acquisition. A real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect the blaKPC gene, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to assess the genetic relatedness of isolates.
Ninety-nine CRE transmission cases, 16 admission cases (from 7 acute care hospitals), and 29 CRE bacteremia episodes were identified. Significant reductions were observed in CRE prevalence (49% vs 8%), percentage of patients screened with newly detected CRE (44% vs 0%), and CRE bacteremia episodes (2.5 vs 0.0 per 1,000 patient-days). Cases were more likely to have received β-lactams, have diabetes, and require mechanical ventilation. All tested isolates were KPC-producing K. pneumoniae, and nearly all isolates were genetically related.
CRE transmission can be reduced in LTACHs through surveillance testing and targeted interventions. Sustainable reductions within and across healthcare facilities may require a regional public health approach.
Acute gastroenteritis is a public health problem of global proportions. Worldwide there are more than 700 million cases of diarrheal disease resulting in around 5 million deaths. In the United States the incidence of acute gastroenteritis is 11% each year and it is second only to respiratory infection as a contagious disease in the American family. The etiology of this common syndrome is obscure but it is becoming apparent that much of this disease is viral in origin. Recent research has elucidated a growing number of human pathogens: Norwalk-like agents, adenoviruses, caliciviruses, and astroviruses. The best understood of these agents are among the earlier discoveries in gastrointestinal virology—the rotaviruses. The study of these agents has greatly advanced our understanding of viral gastroenteritis.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has emerged as an important cause of human illness. Infection with this common virus can result in asymptomatic infection, an acute “mononucleosis-like” illness, or congenital disease. It is capable of persisting in a latent state and reactivating at a later date. It can be transmitted by blood transfusion, organ transplantation, oral or genital contact, intrauterine infection, perinatal infection and perhaps casually by children in day care centers.
Historically, the first reports described “protozoan-like” cells in the organs of a fetus and a stillborn in 1904. In 1932, Farber reported the presence of inclusions in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells in infants dying of various causes and coined the term cytomegalic inclusion disease. The urine was initially cultured in 1953 by Smith, and the subsequent development of serologic methods of diagnosis made its broad spectrum of disease more fully appreciated.
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