Modelling and interpreting the SEDs of galaxies has become one of the key tools at the disposal of extragalactic astronomers. Ideally, we could hope that, through a detailed study of its SED, we can infer the correct physical properties and the evolutionary history of a galaxy. In the past decade, panchromatic SED fitting, i.e. modelling the SED over the entire UV–submm wavelength regime, has seen an enormous advance. Several advanced new codes have been developed, nearly all based on Bayesian inference modelling. In this review, we briefly touch upon the different ingredients necessary for panchromatic SED modelling, and discuss the methodology and some important aspects of Bayesian SED modelling. The current uncertainties and limitations of panchromatic SED modelling are discussed, and we explore some avenues how the models and techniques can potentially be improved in the near future.