To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Laser–plasma interactions have been studied in detail over the past twenty years, as they show great potential for the next generation of particle accelerators. The interaction between an ultra-intense laser and a solid-state target produces a huge amount of particles: electrons and photons (X-rays and
-rays) at early stages of the process, with protons and ions following them. At SPARC_LAB Test Facility we have set up two diagnostic lines to perform simultaneous temporally resolved measurements on both electrons and protons.
Suicide is a complex phenomenon determined by the interplay of an articulated network of factors including socio-economic factors which have a decisive role. This paper investigates the development of the modern conceptualization of suicide in Europe, its sociological understandings and its intertwinement with economic cycles throughout time.
MEDLINE, SCHOLAR, EMBASE using the keywords ‘socioeconomic factors AND suicide’; ‘economic cycles AND suicide’; ‘history AND suicide’ without timeframe limitations. Moreover, journal-by-journal search in journals of related areas was performed.
In total, 51 historical studies focusing on the subjects in European countries were included. Three main areas arose: (a) development of the conceptualization of suicide over time; (b) sociological understandings of suicide according to the structure of society and its economy of power; (c) economic theories explaining the intertwinement of economic cycles and suicides.
Suicide is a deeply human phenomenon inescapably linked to and grounded in society and economic cycles. Understandings from the past show the importance of accurate analysis of socio-economic contexts that shape societies together with man’s own sense of self in order to organize multi-layered tangible and intangible support strategies to better understand and prevent suicide in this day and age.
Among the myths that are often cited about suicide is that ‘people who talk about killing themselves rarely die by suicide’, but the evidence seems to contradict this statement. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of studies reporting a prevalence of suicide communication (SC), and to examine the diagnostic accuracy of SC towards suicide in case-control reports.
Eligible studies had to examine data relative to completed suicides and report the prevalence of SC. Data relative to sample characteristics, study definition, modality and recipient of the SC were coded.
We included 36 studies, conducted on a total of 14 601 completed suicides. The overall proportion of SC was 44.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 35.4–53.8], with large heterogeneity (I2 = 98.8%) and significant publication bias. The prevalence of SC was negatively associated with the detection of verbal communication as the sole means of SC and, positively, with study methodological quality. Based on seven case-control studies, SC was associated with an odds ratio of 4.66 for suicide (95% CI 3.00–7.25) and was characterized by sufficient diagnostic accuracy only if studies on adolescents were removed.
Available data suggest that SC occurs in nearly half of subjects who go on to die by suicide, but this figure is likely to be an underestimate given the operational definitions of SC. At present, SC seems associated with overall insufficient accuracy towards subsequent suicide, although further rigorous studies are warranted to draw definite conclusions on this issue.
It is unclear whether there is a direct link between economic crises and changes in suicide rates.
The Lopez-Ibor Foundation launched an initiative to study the possible impact of the economic crisis on European suicide rates.
Data was gathered and analysed from 29 European countries and included the number of deaths by suicide in men and women, the unemployment rate, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, the annual economic growth rate and inflation.
There was a strong correlation between suicide rates and all economic indices except GPD per capita in men but only a correlation with unemployment in women. However, the increase in suicide rates occurred several months before the economic crisis emerged.
Overall, this study confirms a general relationship between the economic environment and suicide rates; however, it does not support there being a clear causal relationship between the current economic crisis and an increase in the suicide rate.