Phenological and aerobiological research into major crops is of great value in adapting traditional processes to the new conditions prompted by global climate change. Data on flowering phenology and airborne pollen have also proved useful for harvest forecasting purposes. The current paper reports on an agrometeorological study carried out in the Montilla-Moriles Protected Designation of Origin area (Córdoba, southern Spain) in 2015 and 2016. The study focused on four grape cultivars produced at seven local vineyards (Pedro Ximénez, the most widely grown in the area; Verdejo; Muscat blanc à petits grains; and Chardonnay, which has been recently introduced). Phenological observations were performed on a weekly basis using the Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und Chemische Industrie scale adapted for grapevine. Airborne pollen concentrations were monitored using one Hirst-type volumetric sampler and seven passive samplers. Airborne pollen was mainly detected in vineyards during inflorescence emergence and flowering. Year-on-year differences in climatic conditions led to differences in airborne pollen levels. The main variables affecting pollen concentrations were dew point and temperature. The life-cycles recorded here were shorter than in temperate climates but longer than in tropical climates. In terms of flowering period, the cultivars studied here were classed as ‘early cultivars’. Data obtained using local passive samplers located directly in the vineyard confirmed that the airborne pollen concentrations recorded by the volumetric sampler were representative of the study area.