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Conflicts between humans and bears have occurred since prehistory. Through time, the catalogue of human–bear conflicts (HBC) has been changing depending on the values and needs of human societies and their interactions with bears. Even today, conflict situations vary among the eight species of bears and geographically across these species’ ranges. This results in a broad range of interactions between bears and humans that may be considered as conflicts, including: (1) predation of domestic or semiwild animals, including bees, hunting dogs, and pet animals; (2) damage due to foraging on cultivated berries, fruits, agricultural products, and the tree bark in forest plantations; (3) economic loss due to destruction of beehives, fences, silos, houses, and other human property; (4) bear attacks on humans causing mild or fatal trauma; (5) bluff charges, bear intrusions into residential areas; and (6) vehicle collisions with bears and traffic accidents. In this chapter we aim to outline the principal types of HBC and geographical differences in the occurrence of conflicts and the coexistence between people and bears.
There is evidence that environmental and genetic risk factors for schizophrenia spectrum disorders are transdiagnostic and mediated in part through a generic pathway of affective dysregulation.
We analysed to what degree the impact of schizophrenia polygenic risk (PRS-SZ) and childhood adversity (CA) on psychosis outcomes was contingent on co-presence of affective dysregulation, defined as significant depressive symptoms, in (i) NEMESIS-2 (n = 6646), a representative general population sample, interviewed four times over nine years and (ii) EUGEI (n = 4068) a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, the siblings of these patients and controls.
The impact of PRS-SZ on psychosis showed significant dependence on co-presence of affective dysregulation in NEMESIS-2 [relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI): 1.01, p = 0.037] and in EUGEI (RERI = 3.39, p = 0.048). This was particularly evident for delusional ideation (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 1.74, p = 0.003; EUGEI: RERI = 4.16, p = 0.019) and not for hallucinatory experiences (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 0.65, p = 0.284; EUGEI: −0.37, p = 0.547). A similar and stronger pattern of results was evident for CA (RERI delusions and hallucinations: NEMESIS-2: 3.02, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 6.44, p < 0.001; RERI delusional ideation: NEMESIS-2: 3.79, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 5.43, p = 0.001; RERI hallucinatory experiences: NEMESIS-2: 2.46, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 0.54, p = 0.465).
The results, and internal replication, suggest that the effects of known genetic and non-genetic risk factors for psychosis are mediated in part through an affective pathway, from which early states of delusional meaning may arise.
This study attempted to replicate whether a bias in probabilistic reasoning, or ‘jumping to conclusions’(JTC) bias is associated with being a sibling of a patient with schizophrenia spectrum disorder; and if so, whether this association is contingent on subthreshold delusional ideation.
Data were derived from the EUGEI project, a 25-centre, 15-country effort to study psychosis spectrum disorder. The current analyses included 1261 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 1282 siblings of patients and 1525 healthy comparison subjects, recruited in Spain (five centres), Turkey (three centres) and Serbia (one centre). The beads task was used to assess JTC bias. Lifetime experience of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences was assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. General cognitive abilities were taken into account in the analyses.
JTC bias was positively associated not only with patient status but also with sibling status [adjusted relative risk (aRR) ratio : 4.23 CI 95% 3.46–5.17 for siblings and aRR: 5.07 CI 95% 4.13–6.23 for patients]. The association between JTC bias and sibling status was stronger in those with higher levels of delusional ideation (aRR interaction in siblings: 3.77 CI 95% 1.67–8.51, and in patients: 2.15 CI 95% 0.94–4.92). The association between JTC bias and sibling status was not stronger in those with higher levels of hallucinatory experiences.
These findings replicate earlier findings that JTC bias is associated with familial liability for psychosis and that this is contingent on the degree of delusional ideation but not hallucinations.
In Europe, the incidence of psychotic disorder is high in certain migrant and minority ethnic groups (hence: ‘minorities’). However, it is unknown how the incidence pattern for these groups varies within this continent. Our objective was to compare, across sites in France, Italy, Spain, the UK and the Netherlands, the incidence rates for minorities and the incidence rate ratios (IRRs, minorities v. the local reference population).
The European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene–Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study was conducted between 2010 and 2015. We analyzed data on incident cases of non-organic psychosis (International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition, codes F20–F33) from 13 sites.
The standardized incidence rates for minorities, combined into one category, varied from 12.2 in Valencia to 82.5 per 100 000 in Paris. These rates were generally high at sites with high rates for the reference population, and low at sites with low rates for the reference population. IRRs for minorities (combined into one category) varied from 0.70 (95% CI 0.32–1.53) in Valencia to 2.47 (95% CI 1.66–3.69) in Paris (test for interaction: p = 0.031). At most sites, IRRs were higher for persons from non-Western countries than for those from Western countries, with the highest IRRs for individuals from sub-Saharan Africa (adjusted IRR = 3.23, 95% CI 2.66–3.93).
Incidence rates vary by region of origin, region of destination and their combination. This suggests that they are strongly influenced by the social context.
This article assesses the nutritional status of Indigenous women from 14 to 49 years of age in Brazil.
Sample size was calculated for each region considering a prevalence of 50 % for all disease outcomes, a relative error of 5 % and a CI of 95 %. In the initial data analysis, the prevalence of excess weight and obesity was calculated according to independent variables. Multivariate multilevel hierarchical analyses were conducted based on a theoretical model of two ranked blocks.
The 2010 Indigenous population in Brazil was 896 000, with approximately 300 Indigenous ethnic groups, making Brazil one of the most ethnically diverse countries in the Americas and the world.
Of the total target sample of 6722 women evaluated by the National Survey, thirty did not participate, 939 were not eligible for analyses due to pregnancy or unknown pregnancy status, and thirty-nine were excluded due to missing anthropometric data.
The evaluation of nutritional status was completed for 5714 non-pregnant women (99·3 % of eligible participants for this outcome). High prevalence rates were encountered for both excess weight (46·2 %) and obesity (15·8 %) among the sampled women. In the multivariate analyses, higher socioeconomic indicators, market-integrated living conditions and less reliance on local food production, as well as increased age and parity were associated with excess weight and obesity.
Results point to distinct patterns of associations between socioeconomic indicators and the occurrence of excess weight and obesity among Indigenous women, which have potentially significant implications from a public policy perspective for Indigenous peoples in Brazil.
First episode psychosis (FEP) patients who use cannabis experience more frequent psychotic and euphoric intoxication experiences compared to controls. It is not clear whether this is consequent to patients being more vulnerable to the effects of cannabis use or to their heavier pattern of use. We aimed to determine whether extent of use predicted psychotic-like and euphoric intoxication experiences in patients and controls and whether this differs between groups.
We analysed data on patients who had ever used cannabis (n = 655) and controls who had ever used cannabis (n = 654) across 15 sites from six countries in the EU-GEI study (2010–2015). We used multiple regression to model predictors of cannabis-induced experiences and to determine if there was an interaction between caseness and extent of use.
Caseness, frequency of cannabis use and money spent on cannabis predicted psychotic-like and euphoric experiences (p ⩽ 0.001). For psychotic-like experiences (PEs) there was a significant interaction for caseness × frequency of use (p < 0.001) and caseness × money spent on cannabis (p = 0.001) such that FEP patients had increased experiences at increased levels of use compared to controls. There was no significant interaction for euphoric experiences (p > 0.5).
FEP patients are particularly sensitive to increased psychotic-like, but not euphoric experiences, at higher levels of cannabis use compared to controls. This suggests a specific psychotomimetic response in FEP patients related to heavy cannabis use. Clinicians should enquire regarding cannabis related PEs and advise that lower levels of cannabis use are associated with less frequent PEs.
Previous literature supports antipsychotics’ (AP) efficacy in acute first-episode psychosis (FEP) in terms of symptomatology and functioning but also a cognitive detrimental effect. However, regarding functional recovery in stabilised patients, these effects are not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to investigate dopaminergic/anticholinergic burden of (AP) on psychosocial functioning in FEP. We also examined whether cognitive impairment may mediate these effects on functioning.
A total of 157 FEP participants were assessed at study entry, and at 2 months and 2 years after remission of the acute episode. The primary outcomes were social functioning as measured by the functioning assessment short test (FAST). Cognitive domains were assessed as potential mediators. Dopaminergic and anticholinergic AP burden on 2-year psychosocial functioning [measured with chlorpromazine (CPZ) and drug burden index] were independent variables. Secondary outcomes were clinical and socio-demographic variables.
Mediation analysis found a statistical but not meaningful contribution of dopaminergic receptor blockade burden to worse functioning mediated by cognition (for every 600 CPZ equivalent points, 2-year FAST score increased 1.38 points). Regarding verbal memory and attention, there was an indirect effect of CPZ burden on FAST (b = 0.0045, 95% CI 0.0011–0.0091) and (b = 0.0026, 95% CI 0.0001–0.0006) respectively. However, only verbal memory post hoc analyses showed a significant indirect effect (b = 0.009, 95% CI 0.033–0.0151) adding premorbid IQ as covariate. We did not find significant results for anticholinergic burden.
CPZ dose effect over functioning is mediated by verbal memory but this association appears barely relevant.
The ‘jumping to conclusions’ (JTC) bias is associated with both psychosis and general cognition but their relationship is unclear. In this study, we set out to clarify the relationship between the JTC bias, IQ, psychosis and polygenic liability to schizophrenia and IQ.
A total of 817 first episode psychosis patients and 1294 population-based controls completed assessments of general intelligence (IQ), and JTC, and provided blood or saliva samples from which we extracted DNA and computed polygenic risk scores for IQ and schizophrenia.
The estimated proportion of the total effect of case/control differences on JTC mediated by IQ was 79%. Schizophrenia polygenic risk score was non-significantly associated with a higher number of beads drawn (B = 0.47, 95% CI −0.21 to 1.16, p = 0.17); whereas IQ PRS (B = 0.51, 95% CI 0.25–0.76, p < 0.001) significantly predicted the number of beads drawn, and was thus associated with reduced JTC bias. The JTC was more strongly associated with the higher level of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in controls, including after controlling for IQ (B = −1.7, 95% CI −2.8 to −0.5, p = 0.006), but did not relate to delusions in patients.
Our findings suggest that the JTC reasoning bias in psychosis might not be a specific cognitive deficit but rather a manifestation or consequence, of general cognitive impairment. Whereas, in the general population, the JTC bias is related to PLEs, independent of IQ. The work has the potential to inform interventions targeting cognitive biases in early psychosis.
Cardiovascular side effects of antipsychotics are been studied both in typical and atypical antipsychotics but, in particular, with clozapine few systematic studies of these effects have been performed. In this study, we reviewed electrocardiographic (ECG) data from patients treated with clozapine.
Observational, retrospective study in our Clozapine Day Clinic from 2000 to 2008. We recluted 197 patients (70% men) with mean age 31,75 ± 9,0 years who began treatment with clozapine. All of them had an electrocardiogram taken before starting treatment and after 18 weeks of follow-up. None suffered from heart diseases. QTc was evaluated by Bazett formula (QT/ (R-R’)1/2). Treatment prescribed was taken down and drug serum levels were detected. Statistical analysis was executed by SPSS 17.0.
There was significant correlation between doses prescribed and levels of clozapine and norclozapine (r=.304, p=.023; r=.354 p=.007), between levels of clozapine, norclozapine and QTc enlargement (r=.348, p=.008; r=.268 p=.046) and between levels of clozapine, norclozapine and heart rate (r=.390, p=.003; r=.326 p=.014). There were no differences between QTc and treatment with clozapine or other antipsychotic (p=0.902), between sex or if polypharmacy existed. ECG alterations were a case of supraventricular extrasystoles, another of Wolf-Parkinson -White Syndrome and other inespecific alterations like repolarizations or left hypertrophy.
We did not find either major incidence on cardiological effects or significative QTc enlargement during treatment with clozapine in contrast to other antipsychotic previously prescribed. Therefore clozapine may be in the same cardiologic safety rank than other antipsychotics.
Neurocognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia and is closely associated with functional outcome. The importance of cognitive assessment is broadly accepted today, and an easy-to-use, internationality validated cognitive assessment tool is needed by researchers and in daily clinical practice. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) has been validated in English, French, Japanese and Italian. It is as sensitive to cognitive dysfunction as a standard test battery, with the advantage of requiring less than 35 minutes to complete. In our study, we tested the psychometric characteristics of a Spanish version of the BACS in 117 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and 36 healthy controls. All BACS cognitive subtests discriminated between patients and controls (P < .001), and the concurrent validity between the BACS and a traditional neuropsychological test battery was similar to that reported in other languages. We conclude that the BACS can facilitate the comparison of the cognitive performance of patients with schizophrenia in many different countries.
Prevalence of cardiovascular disease is high in schizophrenia. Our aim is to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) among schizophrenia patients.
National cross-sectional study in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia under treatment with second generation antipsychotics and admitted to short-stay hospitalisation units.
A sample of 733 consecutively admitted patients was enrolled; the most prevalent CVRFs were smoking 71% (95% CI: 67–74%) and hypercholesterolemia 66% (61–70%) followed by hypertriglyceridemia 26% (26–32%), hypertension 18% (15–21%) and diabetes 5% (4–7%). Metabolic syndrome showed 19% (95% CI: 16–23%) prevalence or, according to updated definitions (Clin Cornerstone 7  36–45), 24% (95% CI: 20–28%). The rate of patients within the high-risk range of a 10-year fatal cardiovascular event was 6.5%. CVRFs under routine management were diabetes (60%), hypertension (28%) and, to a lesser extent, dyslipemia (14%). Treatment for CVRFs was associated to gender, men for hypertension OR = 25.34, p < 0.03 and women for diabetes OR = 0.02, p < 0.03.
We found that CVRFs in schizophrenia were prevalent and under-diagnosed, and thus with insufficient therapeutic management.
Characterizing the profile of schizophrenic patients with high hospitalization rates seems relevant. The aim of this study is to describe characteristics of patients with schizophrenia hospitalized at Acute Care Units, and identify clinical profiles associated to relapse.
Observational retrospective study (case-control). Hospitalized patients diagnosed for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder for more than 2 years. Data related to the previous 3 years and current hospitalization were recorded: sociodemographics, diagnosis, CGI, reason for current/previous hospitalizations, life events, drug abuse, therapy prior and during hospitalization and compliance.
Preliminary results from 1607 patients are presented: cases are patients with no hospitalization (No-HOSP) in the previous 3 years (N=508); controls are those who had some hospitalization (HOSP) during that period (N=1099). HOSP patients were significantly younger than No-HOSP (p<0.0001). 41% of HOSP and 28.4% of No-HOSP patients showed No-Low family support (p<0.0001). 55.9% of HOSP and 50.2% of No-HOSP patients showed some drug abuse close to current hospitalization (p<0.05). The most frequent factor for current hospitalization was relapse due to non-compliance in both HOSP (66.2%) and No-HOSP (59.4%; p=0.0092). Through artificial intelligence methods, fourteen variables are identified as related to relapse (Number of previous antipsychotics, Time of evolution, CGI, Age, Gender, Educational Level, Family support, Compliance, Heroine, Cocaine or Cannabis abuse, Stressing events, Diagnosis, Number of previous hospitalizations), which have permitted to develop a predictive model for relapse (PRECOG Project).
The main factor for hospitalization was non-compliance. Age, family support, drug abuse seem to be also related to hospitalization.
To describe the clinical profiles, modifications of the therapeutic strategies and relapse rate of patients with schizophrenia who are at risk of non-adherence to oral antipsychotic (AP) medication.
A cohort of 597 outpatients whose therapy was modified because of risk of non-adherence to oral AP was followed during 12 months. Authors used Cox regression to analyse the time to relapse.
Patients’ mean (SD) age was 40.1 (11.1) and time since diagnosis was 15.2 (10.0) years; 64% were males. The clinical condition was at least moderate in most patients (CGI-S score ≥4 in 87%). Baseline AP medication was modified in 506 (85%) patients and non-pharmacological therapies in 190 (32%). In both cases, the main reason for modifications was insufficient efficacy. Concomitant medications were modified in 15%. The proportion of patients in AP monotherapy decreased in favour of polytherapy, and 15% started depot formulations.
During 12 months, 90 patients (15%) relapsed. Among relapsing patients, the proportion on monotherapy decreased to 42%, and the depot prescriptions rose to 28%. The risk of relapse was greater among patients with substance use disorder or familial psychiatric antecedents and lower in patients with poor attitude to AP medication or undergoing modifications of their non-pharmacological therapy at baseline.
Non-adherence management was focused on improving efficacy and consisted mainly of modifications of oral AP medication. The recognition and treatment, not necessarily pharmacological, of patients with a poor attitude to medication at baseline might explain their lower risk of relapse.
The metabolic syndrome MS (visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, and hypertension), has become one of the major public-health challenges worldwide. Patients with schizophrenia are more likely to suffer from MS that the general population. We have analyzed the prevalence of MS in Spanish patients with schizophrenia and overweight.
The CRESSOB study is a 12-month, prospective, naturalistic study including 110 community mental health clinics selected at random. Each site enrolled four consecutive patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia, according to DSM-IV TR criteria, and overweight (BMI > 25 Kg/m2). to assess the prevalence of MS we have analyzed the baseline results of the CRESSOB study. the National Cholesterol Educational Program (NCEP-ATPIII), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) definitions were used to established the presence of MS.
A total of 391 patients were enrolled on the study (mean age 40.5 years, 63.8% men). 75.9% of the patients did not meet criteria for remission, using the selected PANSS items. Mean GAF score was 52.7 (SD 15.4). Using the different criteria, 59.0% of males and 58.3% of females fulfilled the NCEP-ATPIII criteria, 71.1% of males and 65.8% of females fulfilled the IDF criteria and 70.1% of males and 65.1% of females fulfilled the AHA/NHLBI criteria.
The MS is highly prevalent in Spanish patients with schizophrenia and overweight. Given the metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, these patients should receive appropriate clinical monitoring for this syndrome.
The DSM-IV-TR category “brief psychotic disorder” includes different concepts that have been defined before like bouffée délirante, cycloid psychosis and “acute and transient psychosis” in the last ICD-10. Limited prospective studies have been done, and they all show a marked diagnostic instability during follow-up. According to that, its independent nosologic entity is still uncertain.
To determine the diagnostic stability of the brief psychotic disorders as well as their distinct clinical features.
Observational, retrospective, longitudinal study of 80 consecutive patients admitted at the acute psychiatric inpatient service of a general hospital between 2000 and 2006. at discharge, all of them fulfilled diagnostic criteria for “brief psychotic disorder” according to DSM-IV. Demographic and psychopathological data were analysed.
Mean age (SD) was 31.3 (9.5), most of them women (63%). the most frequent previous stressor was related to labour, while up to 45% didn't report any. 51% had no psychiatric family history. 15 (19%) patients previously had a brief psychotic episode. Psychopathological disturbances identified were: thought disorder 69%, anxiety 66.6%, insomnia 57.7%, suspiciousness 53.5%, rapidly changing delusions 53.3% (paranoid contents 75.3%), perplexity 46.5%, auditory hallucinations 45.1%, mood lability 36.6%, elation 23.9%, depressed mood 22.5% and irritability 12.7%. in the 24 month follow-up, 32.5% changed diagnosis to schizophrenia, 3"9% to schizoaffective, 10% to bipolar disorder and 16.9% achieved clinical remission. 28.5% were lost to follow-up.
“Brief psychotic disorder” category is still uncertain and more data may be necessary to clarify if it should remain as a distinct nosologic entity.
Patients with schizophrenia have a reduced life expectancy of 20% in comparison to the general population. They have a relative risk of 1.6 for all cause mortality. Recent innovations in antipsychotic treatment have improved the social integration of patients thanks to a better control of symptoms, however undesirable effects of medication may affect physical health.
To develop a consensus document about the Evaluation of Physical Health of Patients with Schizophrenia along their life, and to propose recommendations for diagnostic and clinical interventions to manage modifiable risk factors which impact on quality of life and life expectancy.
A literature review was performed to identify diseases and/or risk factors potentially related to patient with schizophrenia.
A systematic review of the literature was performed to evaluate the morbid-morbidity of patients with schizophrenia in relation to the identified conditions. 25 psychiatrists and 8 experts from the different specialities participated in the consensus meeting to adapt the general population guidelines to the management of patients with schizophrenia.
The literature review revealed that increased mortality in patients with schizophrenia is associated to respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Increased morbidity is associated to diabetes and metabolic syndrome, respiratory diseases, hepatitis, HIV and dyskinesia.
The resulting recommendations were submitted to the Spanish psychiatry medical societies for their validation.
The physical health of patients with schizophrenia requires specific monitoring and follow-up to guarantee that their life expectancy, quality of life and social functioning is similar to the general population.
To assess the differences in comorbid lifetime substance use (tobacco, alcohol and drug use) between eating disorder (ED) patients and healthy controls.
Participants were a consecutive series of 779 ED cases, who had been referred to specialised ED units in five European countries. The ED cases were compared to a balanced control group of 785 healthy individuals. Assessment: Participants completed the Substance Use Subscale of the Cross Cultural Questionnaire (CCQ), a measure of lifetime tobacco, alcohol and drug use. In the control group, also the GHQ-28, the SCID-I interview and the EAT-26 were used.
ED patients had higher lifetime consumption of tobacco and drugs (p <0.01). The only insignificant result was obtained for alcohol (OR= 1.29; δ =0.157; N.S.) and cannabis use (OR= 1.21; δ = 0.037, N.S.). Significant differences across ED sub diagnoses also emerged for all of the assessed variables (p<0.01), with the BN and AN-BP patients generally presenting the highest prevalence rates. The only exception was detected for alcohol consumption where EDNOS patients demonstrated the highest values (p=0.008). Only a few cultural differences between countries emerged (p<0.05).
Lifetime tobacco and drug use but not alcohol consumption are more prevalent in ED patients than healthy controls. While alcohol appears to be more common in EDNOS, smoking and drug use are more frequent in patients with bulimic symptomatology. The differential risk observed in patients with bulimic features might be related to differences in temperament or might be the result of increased sensitivity to reward.
To examine whether there is an association between individual and family eating patterns during childhood and early adolescence and the likelihood of developing an eating disorder (ED) later in life.
Participants were a consecutive series of 879 ED cases from five different European countries. The ED cases were compared to a control group of 785 healthy individuals. Assessment: Participants completed the Early Eating Environmental Subscale of the Cross-Cultural (Environmental) Questionnaire (CCQ), a retrospective measure, which has been developed to detect dimensions associated with EDs in different countries. In the control group, also the GHQ-28, the SCID-I interview and the EAT-26 were used.
Five individual CatPCA procedures revealed five predetermined dimensions which were labeled: 1.) food as individualization; 2.) control and rules about food; 3.) food as social glue; 4.) healthy eating and 5.) food neglect. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the domains with the strongest effects were: food used as individualization (p=0.001; OR=1.76) and control and rules about food (p=0.001; OR=1.76). Conversely, healthy eating was negatively related to a later ED (p=0.001; OR=0.629). The pattern of associated ED factors was found to very between countries. There was very little difference in early eating behavior on the subtypes of the ED.
The fragmentation of meals within the family and control and rules about food appears to be linked to the development of a subsequent ED. On the other hand mantaining a structured and balanced diet during infancy seems to protect from a later ED.