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We reviewed trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole antibiotic susceptibility testing data among Staphylococcus aureus using 3 national inpatient databases. In all 3 databases, we observed an increases in the percentage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus that were not susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Providers should select antibiotic regimens based on local resistance patterns and should report changes to the public health department.
Background: More than 450,000 patients receive outpatient hemodialysis in the United States. Patients on hemodialysis are at high risk of bloodstream infections (BSIs), which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. National prevention efforts targeting hemodialysis facilities have resulted in widespread changes in practice, including modifications to central venous catheter (CVC) maintenance procedures. We analyzed dialysis event surveillance data submitted to the CDC NHSN to describe changes in BSI rates among hemodialysis outpatients from 2014 to 2018. Methods: Outpatient hemodialysis facilities report BSIs (ie, positive blood cultures collected in the outpatient setting or within 1 calendar day after hospital admission) and the number of hemodialysis outpatients treated during the first 2 working days of each month to the NHSN. For each BSI, the suspected source (ie, vascular access, another site, contamination, or uncertain) and vascular access type are indicated: CVC, arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or arteriovenous graft (AVG). Pooled mean rates (per 100 patient months) were calculated for BSIs, access-related BSIs (ARBSIs), and BSIs and ARBSIs were stratified by vascular access type. Annual BSI rate trends were evaluated using a negative binomial regression model, which treated patient months as an offset variable and included access type, year, and an access-year interaction variable. Results: More than 6,000 outpatient hemodialysis facilities reported 134,961 BSIs from 2014 to 2018. Of these BSIs, 102,505 (76%) were categorized as access related. CVCs were present in 63% of BSIs and 70% of ARBSIs. Pooled mean BSI rates decreased 27% from 0.64 to 0.47 per 100 patient months; rates of ARBSIs decreased 27% from 0.49 to 0.36 per 100 patient months. Significant decreases in event rates occurred across vascular access strata (Fig. 1). The reduction in BSI and ARBSI burden was most pronounced among patients with CVCs. BSI rates in patients with CVCs decreased 32% from 2.16 per 100 patient months to 1.46 (annual average decrease, 9.5%), and ARBSI rates in patients with CVCs decreased 32% from 1.83 per 100 patient months to 1.24 (annual average decrease, 9.4%). Conclusions: Substantial reductions in BSI and ARBSI rates among hemodialysis outpatients occurred during this 5-year period, and these reductions appear to be most prominent among CVC and AVF patients. Improvements in infection prevention and control practices, including CVC care, have likely contributed to these reductions. Additional efforts to increase the uptake of known prevention practices and to identify new strategies for prevention might contribute to continued decreases in infections among this highly vulnerable population.
Prevention of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a national priority and may be facilitated by deployment of the Targeted Assessment for Prevention (TAP) Strategy, a quality improvement framework providing a focused approach to infection prevention. This article describes the process and outcomes of TAP Strategy implementation for CDI prevention in a healthcare system.
Hospital A was identified based on CDI surveillance data indicating an excess burden of infections above the national goal; hospitals B and C participated as part of systemwide deployment. TAP facility assessments were administered to staff to identify infection control gaps and inform CDI prevention interventions. Retrospective analysis was performed using negative-binomial, interrupted time series (ITS) regression to assess overall effect of targeted CDI prevention efforts. Analysis included hospital-onset, laboratory-identified C. difficile event data for 18 months before and after implementation of the TAP facility assessments.
The systemwide monthly CDI rate significantly decreased at the intervention (β2, −44%; P = .017), and the postintervention CDI rate trend showed a sustained decrease (β1 + β3; −12% per month; P = .008). At an individual hospital level, the CDI rate trend significantly decreased in the postintervention period at hospital A only (β1 + β3, −26% per month; P = .003).
This project demonstrates TAP Strategy implementation in a healthcare system, yielding significant decrease in the laboratory-identified C. difficile rate trend in the postintervention period at the system level and in hospital A. This project highlights the potential benefit of directing prevention efforts to facilities with the highest burden of excess infections to more efficiently reduce CDI rates.
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