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Relatively few studies have explored the differential contributions of the accumulative dosage of psychotropic medications on mortality in patients with schizophrenia.
We aimed to explore the effects of the exposure dosage of psychotropic medications on mortality during a follow-up period of 5 years with a national cohort of individuals with schizophrenia in 2010. Causes of death were linked through Taiwan's National Mortality Registry. The mean defined daily dose of antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and sedative-hypnotics, were calculated and survival analyses were conducted.
A total of 102 964 individuals (54 151 men, 52.59%) with schizophrenia were included. Compared to patients with no exposure to antipsychotics, those with antipsychotic exposure had better survival outcomes, regardless of antipsychotic dosage. Antidepressant exposure, in low and moderate dosage, was associated with decreased all-cause mortality; exposure to mood stabilizers appeared to be associated with an increase in all-cause mortality. Although 89.7% of the patients had been prescribed sedative-hypnotics, exposure to sedative-hypnotics was associated with dose-related increased mortality risk [hazard ratio (HR) in low dose group: 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07–1.27; HR in moderate dose: 1.32, 95% CI 1.21–1.44; HR in high dose: 1.83, 95% CI 1.67–2.01)].
The results indicate that in the treatment of schizophrenia, antipsychotics and antidepressants are associated with lower mortality when using adequate dosages and mood stabilizers and sedative-hypnotics with higher mortality compared with no use. Furthermore, exposure to sedative-hypnotics is associated with a dose-related increased mortality risk which warrants clinical attention and further study.
This chapter has reviewed the rights of shareholders to participate in corporate affairs and engage with companies in Hong Kong. With concentrated ownership, it is unlikely that shareholders can change or influence corporate decisions through voting or engagement. Retail and minority shareholders rarely vote in general meetings. The promulgation in March 2016 of the Principles of Responsible Ownership in Hong Kong raised awareness of shareholder participation amongst large institutional shareholders. Legal means of protecting minority shareholders can help institutional shareholders to leverage their weak voting position when demanding changes in controlled firms. However, resorting to legal means is not affordable to retail investors. Hence, facilitating the online voting of retail shareholders and encouraging participation by institutional shareholders might be the best directions for future shareholder engagement in Hong Kong.
This paper examines whether changes in US presidential administration and central bank turnover during the period 1976–2016 caused regime shifts in Taylor rule deviations. Using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model to construct the welfare-maximizing policy rule and deviations from the optimal rule, we find evidence that politics indeed play a key role in explaining these deviations. In addition to politics, unemployment rates and the interest rate spread significantly account for regime shifts in Taylor rule deviations.
Words’ morphemic structure and their orthographic representations vary across languages. How do bilingual experiences with structurally distinct languages influence children's morphological processes for word reading? Focusing on English literacy in monolinguals and bilinguals (N = 350, ages 5–9), we first revealed unique contributions of derivational (friend-li-est) and compound (girl-friend) morphology to early word reading. We then examined mechanisms of bilingual transfer in matched samples of Spanish–English and Chinese–English dual first language learners. Results revealed a principled cross-linguistic interaction between language group (Spanish vs. Chinese bilinguals) and type of morphological awareness. Specifically, bilinguals’ proficiency with the type of morphology that was less characteristic of their home language explained greater variance in their English literacy. These findings showcase the powerful effects of bilingualism on word reading processes in children who have similar reading proficiency but different language experiences, thereby advancing theoretical perspectives on literacy across diverse learners.
Microorganisms can efficiently navigate in anisotropic complex fluids, but the precise swimming mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Their dynamics is determined by the interplay between multiple effects, including the fluid's orientation order, swimmer's undulatory gait and the finite length. Here, we extend the numerical study of the two-dimensional undulatory motions of a flexible swimmer in lyotropic liquid-crystalline polymers (LCPs) by Lin et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 921, 2021, p. A25) to the scenario of arbitrary swimming directions with respect to the nematic director. The swimmer is modelled as a nearly inextensible yet flexible fibre with imposed travelling-wave-like actuation. We investigate the orientation-dependent swimming behaviours in nematic LCPs for an infinitely long sheet (i.e. Taylor's swimming sheet model) and finite-length swimmers. We demonstrate that the swimmer must be sufficiently stiff to produce undulatory deformations to gain net motions. Moreover, a motile finite-length swimmer can reorient itself to swim parallel with the nematic director, due to a net body torque arising from the asymmetric distribution of the polymer force along the body.
The linguistic study of Chinese, with its rich morphological, syntactic and prosodic/tonal structures, its complex writing system, and its diverse socio-historical background, is already a long-established and vast research area. With contributions from internationally renowned experts in the field, this Handbook provides a state-of-the-art survey of the central issues in Chinese linguistics. Chapters are divided into four thematic areas: writing systems and the neuro-cognitive processing of Chinese, morpho-lexical structures, phonetic and phonological characteristics, and issues in syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and discourse. By following a context-driven approach, it shows how theoretical issues in Chinese linguistics can be resolved with empirical evidence and argumentation, and provides a range of different perspectives. Its dialectical design sets a state-of-the-art benchmark for research in a wide range of interdisciplinary and cross-lingual studies involving the Chinese language. It is an essential resource for students and researchers wishing to explore the fascinating field of Chinese linguistics.
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of high-frequency oscillation ventilation combined with intermittent mandatory ventilation in infants with acute respiratory distress syndrome after congenital heart surgery.
We retrospectively analysed the clinical data of 32 infants who were ventilated due to acute respiratory distress syndrome after congenital heart surgery between January, 2020 and January, 2022. We adopted high-frequency oscillation ventilation combined with intermittent mandatory ventilation as the rescue ventilation mode for infants who were failing conventional mechanical ventilation.
After rescue high-frequency oscillation ventilation combined with intermittent mandatory ventilation, the dynamic compliance (Cdyn), PaO2 and PaO2/FiO2 ratio of the infants improved compared with conventional mechanical ventilation (p < 0.05). Moreover, high-frequency oscillation ventilation combined with intermittent mandatory ventilation resulted in a significant decrease in arterial-alveolar oxygen difference (AaDO2), FiO2, and oxygenation index (p < 0.05). No significant effect on haemodynamic parameters was observed. Moreover, no serious complications occurred in the two groups.
Rescue high-frequency oscillation ventilation combined with intermittent mandatory ventilation significantly improved oxygenation in infants who failed conventional mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome after congenital heart surgery. Thus, this strategy is considered safe and feasible. However, further studies must be conducted to confirm the efficacy and safety of high-frequency oscillation ventilation combined with intermittent mandatory ventilation as a rescue perioperative respiratory support strategy for CHD.