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The chapter explores Bergson’s connection of intelligence and invention. Far from dismissing the intellect outright (as many of his readers believe), Bergson carefully distinguishes between the intellect that understands and the intellect that invents - the “true intellect,” which is best understood by way of virtuality. Focusing on the essay “Intellectual Effort” from Mind-Energy, the chapter gives a detailed description of the dynamic schema as a singular, unified, and schematic view of the whole (an intuition) that points in the direction in which the solution to a problem is to be invented. The key aspect is its dynamism, which allows for action and distinguishes the “true” from the “pure” intellect that merely rearranges preexisting images. On the basis of this reading, the essay proposes a definition of the virtual as actualized through the effort of the inventive intellect: the virtual is the production of a new invention (a creation) thanks to the dynamic schema, the force of a problem demanding to be solved (perception), and the memory-images that come in to embody the schema.
The Cambridge Foucault Lexicon is a reference tool that provides clear and incisive definitions and descriptions of all of Foucault's major terms and influences, including history, knowledge, language, philosophy and power. It also includes entries on philosophers about whom Foucault wrote and who influenced Foucault's thinking, such as Deleuze, Heidegger, Nietzsche and Canguilhem. The entries are written by scholars of Foucault from a variety of disciplines such as philosophy, gender studies, political science and history. Together, they shed light on concepts key to Foucault and to ongoing discussions of his work today.