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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE), underscoring the urgent need for simple, efficient, and inexpensive methods to decontaminate masks and respirators exposed to severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We hypothesized that methylene blue (MB) photochemical treatment, which has various clinical applications, could decontaminate PPE contaminated with coronavirus.
The 2 arms of the study included (1) PPE inoculation with coronaviruses followed by MB with light (MBL) decontamination treatment and (2) PPE treatment with MBL for 5 cycles of decontamination to determine maintenance of PPE performance.
MBL treatment was used to inactivate coronaviruses on 3 N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) and 2 medical mask models. We inoculated FFR and medical mask materials with 3 coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and we treated them with 10 µM MB and exposed them to 50,000 lux of white light or 12,500 lux of red light for 30 minutes. In parallel, integrity was assessed after 5 cycles of decontamination using multiple US and international test methods, and the process was compared with the FDA-authorized vaporized hydrogen peroxide plus ozone (VHP+O3) decontamination method.
Overall, MBL robustly and consistently inactivated all 3 coronaviruses with 99.8% to >99.9% virus inactivation across all FFRs and medical masks tested. FFR and medical mask integrity was maintained after 5 cycles of MBL treatment, whereas 1 FFR model failed after 5 cycles of VHP+O3.
MBL treatment decontaminated respirators and masks by inactivating 3 tested coronaviruses without compromising integrity through 5 cycles of decontamination. MBL decontamination is effective, is low cost, and does not require specialized equipment, making it applicable in low- to high-resource settings.
In this chapter I begin by examining some of the earliest legal documents to have been found, vassal treaties from the middle of the third millennium BCE. In the second section I analyze the most famous ancient “international” treaty: that struck between Egypt and the Hittite Kingdom in the second millennium BCE. In the third section I begin to explore the idea of compliance to treaties in the ancient world. In the fourth section I explore the specific use of oaths and threats as self-help in enforcement of ancient treaties. And in the final section, I discuss how trust was understood and encouraged in ancient times.
It is often said that the Babylonian laws, especially the Laws of Hammurabi, are not as humane as other ancient laws such as the laws of the Bible, because Hammurabi’s laws track hierarchical social status rather than treating all equally before the law.
This chapter is about the origins of criminal law in ancient times. It is often claimed that ancient societies lack a conception of crime – treating all harms as civil wrongs (what we call “torts” today).
What is characteristic of some of international law is that there are rules that are seen to apply to most States, at least in a significant region of the world, and the rules have a bindingness that extends beyond the particular borders of those States.
One of the most metaphysically fraught concepts in legal thought is causation. Yet, despite being published in ancient Athens, the Tetralogies (attributed to Antiphon) provide a fascinating account of causation that even legal theorists today can appreciate.
In light of the move toward an acceptance of universal law at the end of the ancient period, we also can find very clear expressions of the Just War doctrine, the view that only some wars were morally justified on very limited grounds, which were spelled out in detail.