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zinc is an essential micro-nutrient for growth and proper immune function. Yet there are limited data available on the prevalence of zinc deficiency among children aged 3–5 at the country level. This information will enable health planners to determine the need for zinc intervention activities and to stimulate further research into these areas.
materials and methods
The data on children aged 3–5 were extracted from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2013. By multi-stage stratified cluster randomly sampling method, 30 children aged 3–5 years old were selected from each region for this study from 55 counties in China to analyze serum zinc. Finally, 1472 children aged 3–5 years were included in the study. The concentration of serum zinc was determined by high resolution inductively coupled plasm mass spectrometry. High and low level quality control samples were used, measured value was (1.63 ± 0.04)mg/l and (2.80 ± 0.06)mg/l, respectively. CV of quality control samples were 1.69%~2.45%. The zinc deficiency was defined as serum zinc level < 70μg/dl with the standard of WHO.
serum zinc means of children aged 3–5 years was (95.3 ± 18.2)μg/dl and 3.9% children with zinc deficiency. serum zinc means level in urban children was (98.9 ± 17.6)μg/dl, and (91.6 ± 18.2)μg/dl in rural area. we showed that the serum zinc deficiency rate was higher in rural children (5.5%) than urban children (2.4%), and there were significant differences between these two areas. serum zinc means level in boys aged 3–5 years was (95.3 ± 18.7)μg/dl, and (95.3 ± 17.8)μg/dl in girls aged 3–5 years old. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was 1.5%, 6.6% and 1.8% in 3~,4~,5~ years old urban boys, respectively; 6.8%, 7.7% and 4.0% in rural boys, respectively. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was 2.3%, 0.8% and 1.7% in 3~,4~,5~ years old urban girls, respectively; 4.1%, 7.0% and 4.0% in rural girls, respectively. And there were differences between urban and rural areas in girls of 4~.5 years.
The zinc level of children aged 3–5 years in China has been improved compared with ten years ago, but the zinc deficiency of rural children is still lower than that of urban children, especially those aged 4 to 5 years in rural areas, so we should pay more attention to this group.
Both stunting and overweight are present in children across China. Seemingly paradoxical, these two conditions can also coexist in the same child. The aim was to examine the associations between dietary food/nutrient intake and plasma lipid profiles related to stunting and overweight status.
The 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey was a family-based nationally representative cross-sectional study.
Thirty-one provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities.
The study included 13 770 children aged 2–17 years. The sample size for the four exposure groups was 10 814 for children of normal height and weight, 2128 for stunted, 729 for overweight and 99 for stunted overweight.
Compared with children of normal height and weight, stunted and stunted overweight children consumed more high-energy-dense foods with a lower dietary diversity score, less protein, polyunsaturated fat and Fe, and a higher molar ratio of phytate to Ca. On the contrary, overweight children tended to consume significantly less carbohydrates and more protein and fat. Overall, stunted overweight children consumed lower amounts of vegetables, fruit, white meat (poultry and fish) and more milk. The OR for prevalent dyslipidaemia were 1·32 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·53), 1·76 (95 % CI 1·48, 2·09) and 2·59 (95 % CI 1·65, 4·07) among stunted, overweight and stunted overweight children, respectively, compared with children of normal height and weight. In addition, being overweight was significantly associated with high glucose concentrations, whereas stunting was significantly associated with having anaemia.
Limited dietary diversity and intake of high-energy-dense foods were notably observed among stunted overweight children. Furthermore, being stunted and/or overweight was associated with an increased likelihood of unhealthy lipid profiles.