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We propose to use Purcell effect emerged at slow light regions in photonic crystal waveguide (PC-WG) modes for controlling the relaxation time of excited carriers in QDs. Straight GaAs PC-WGs including InAs-QDs with various lattice constants of PC were prepared in order to control the wavelength of the slow light in the PC-WG modes. PL measurements of the PC-WGs indicated enhancements of emission from QDs at the localized wavelength of slow light regions due to the Purcell effect. The enhanced emission peak wavelength was continuously shifted with the PC lattice constant. These results suggest that the PC-WG can be utilized to modify the spontaneous emission rate and carrier relaxation time of the embedded QD. This modification can be applied and useful for various QD-based optical devices as well as our proposed all-optical switching device based on PC-WG/QD.
We investigate the potential of a slit grating structure on a silver film embedded in a high index dielectric film, as a Plasmonic optical antenna in infrared region. Using FDTD calculations it is demonstrated that the transmission properties of the structure has strong dependence on the dimension of dielectric film. By tapering the height of output gratings directionality of the emitted beam has been improved. We propose the application of the Plasmonic antenna and examine its performance in axial injection of light from single mode fiber to photonic crystal waveguide.
We have developed a selective-area-growth (SAG) method of self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) using a metal-mask (MM) combined with molecular beam epitaxy for realizing photonic crystal (PC) based ultra-small and ultra-fast all-optical devices (PC-SMZ and PC-FF). Successful SAG of QDs was confirmed by atomic-force-microscopy observations and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. High density and high uniformity comparable to those of conventional QDs grown without the MM were achieved; the QD density was 4 × 1010cm-2 and a linewidth of the PL peak was around 30meV at room temperature. In addition, insertion of a strain-reducing layer on the grown QD was effective for varying the PL peak wavelength of the QD from 1240nm to 1320nm without any extra optical degradation. The MM method reported here is promising for achieving the all optical devices, PC-SMZ and PC-FF, which require SAG of QDs and a QD ensemble with a different absorption-peak wavelength in a different area.
We propose a new nano-probe-assisted technique which enables the formation of site-controlled InAs quantum dots (QDs). High-density two-dimensional indium (In) nano-dot arrays on a GaAs substrate were fabricated by using a specially designed atomic-force-microscope (AFM) probe (the Nano-Jet Probe). This developed probe has a hollow pyramidal tip with a sub-micron size aperture on the apex and an In-reservoir tank within the stylus. By applying a voltage pulse between the pyramidal tip and the sample, In clusters were extracted from the reservoir tank within the stylus through the aperture, resulting in the In nano-dot formation. These In nano-dots can be directly converted to InAs QD arrays by subsequent irradiation of arsenic flux.
We propose a novel site-control technique for strained quantum dots (QDs) based on nano-lithography using an STM integrated into a UHV STM/MBE multi-chamber system. A nano-scale deposit was formed on a GaAs surface by applying voltage between the GaAs surface and the tungsten tip of the STM. Since the deposit acted as a nano-mask, the subsequent GaAs growth formed a nano-hole just above the deposit. Subsequent InAs supply produced a QD on the hole site, and no QD was observed in any undesirable regions. We also observed the QD formation processes involved in the technique, based on step-by-step STM observations of the QD formation process. The observation directly revealed an InAs wetting layer formation with 1-ML thickness on the GaAs terraces followed by the QD formation in the Stranski-Krastanow growth mode.
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