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Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) is considered to be a major regulator to control cholesterol homoeostasis in mammals. However, the role of SREBP2 in teleost remains poorly understand. Here, we explored the molecular characterisation of SREBP2 and identified SREBP2 as a key modulator for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase and 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, which were rate-limiting enzymes of cholesterol biosynthesis. Moreover, dietary palm oil in vivo or palmitic acid (PA) treatment in vitro elevated cholesterol content through triggering SREBP2-mediated cholesterol biosynthesis in large yellow croaker. Furthermore, our results also found that PA-induced activation of SREBP2 was dependent on the stimulating of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in croaker myocytes and inhibition of ERS by 4-Phenylbutyric acid alleviated PA-induced SREBP2 activation and cholesterol biosynthesis. In summary, our findings reveal a novel insight for understanding the role of SREBP2 in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism in fish and may deepen the link between dietary fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis.
The nutritional status experienced in the early development of life plays a vital role in the long-term metabolic state of the individual, which is known as nutritional programming. The present study investigated the long-term effects of vegetable oil (VO) nutritional programming during the early life of large yellow croaker. First, larvae were fed either a fish oil (FO) diet or a VO diet for 30 d. Subsequently, under the same conditions, all fish were fed a commercial diet for 90 d and thereafter challenged with an FO or VO diet for 30 d. The results showed that growth performance was significantly lower in larvae fed the VO diet than in those in fed the FO diet in the stimulus phase. Notably, VO nutritional history fish showed lower levels of liver lipids liver total triglycerides and serum nonesterified free fatty acids than the FO nutritional history fish when juveniles were challenged with the VO diet, which was consistent with the expression of lipogenesis-related genes and proteins. Moreover, the VO nutritional history fish showed lower liver damage and higher antioxidant capacity than FO nutritional history fish when challenged with the VO diet. In summary, this study showed that a short VO stimulus during the early life stage of large yellow croaker, had a long-term effect on lipid metabolism and the antioxidant system. Specifically, VO nutritional programming had a positive effect on alleviating abnormal lipid deposition on the liver, liver damage, and the reduction of hepatic antioxidant capacity caused by a VO diet.
Dietary l-carnitine (LC) is a nutritional factor that reduces liver lipid content. However, whether dietary LC can improve lipid metabolism via simultaneous activation of mitochondrial fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation and suppression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is still unknown. Large yellow croaker were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with dietary LC at 0, 1·2 or 2·4 ‰ for 10 weeks. The results indicated that a HFD supplemented with LC reduced the liver total lipid and TAG content and improved serum lipid profiles. LC supplementation administered to this fish increased the liver antioxidant capacity by decreasing serum and liver malondialdehyde levels and enhancing the liver antioxidant capacity, which then relieved the liver damage. Dietary LC increased the ATP dynamic process and mitochondrial number, decreased mitochondrial DNA damage and enhanced the protein expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation, biogenesis and mitophagy. Furthermore, dietary LC supplementation increased the expression of genes and proteins related to peroxisomal β-oxidation and biogenesis. Interestingly, feeding fish with LC-enriched diets decreased the protein levels indicative of ER stress, such as glucose-regulated protein 78, p-eukaryotic translational initiation factor 2a and activating transcription factor 6. Dietary LC supplementation downregulated mRNA expression relative to FA synthesis, reduced liver lipid and relieved liver damage through regulating β-oxidation and biogenesis of mitochondria and peroxisomes, as well as the ER stress pathway in fish fed with HFD. The present study provides the first evidence that dietary LC can improve lipid metabolism via simultaneously promoting FA β-oxidation capability and suppressing the ER stress pathway in fish.
Vitamin D (VD) plays a vital role in various physiological processes in addition to its classic functions on maintaining the balance of Ca and P metabolism. However, there still are gaps to understand in depth the issues on the precise requirement, metabolic processes and physiological functions of VD in fish. In this study, we investigated the effects of VD on the growth, intestinal health, host immunity and metabolism in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), one important commercial carnivorous fish in aquaculture, through the supplementation of different doses of dietary VD3 (0, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 μg VD3/kg diet). According to our results, the optimal VD3 level in the feed for turbot growth was estimated to be around 400 μg/kg, whereas VD3 deficiency or overdose in diets induced the intestinal inflammation, lowered the diversity of gut microbiota and impaired the host resistance to bacterial infection in turbot. Moreover, the level of 1α,25(OH)2D3, the active metabolite of VD3, reached a peak value in the turbot serum in the 400 μg group, although the concentrations of Ca and phosphate in the turbot were stable in all groups. Finally, the deficiency of dietary VD3 disturbed the nutritional metabolism in turbot, especially the metabolism of lipids and glucose. In conclusion, this study evaluated the optimal dose of dietary VD3 for turbot and provided the evidence that VD has a significant impact on intestinal health, host immunity and nutritional metabolism in fish, which deepened our understanding on the physiological functions and metabolism of VD3 in fish.
Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is a potent regulator of TAG metabolism, but knowledge of the mechanisms underlying ANGPTL4 transcription in response to fatty acids is still limited in teleost. In the current study, we explored the molecular characterisation of ANGPTL4 and regulatory mechanisms of ANGPTL4 in response to fatty acids in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). Here, croaker angptl4 contained a 1416 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 471 amino acids with highly conserved 12-amino acid consensus motif. Angptl4 was widely expressed in croaker, with the highest expression in the liver. In vitro, oleic and palmitic acids (OA and PA) treatments strongly increased angptl4 mRNA expression in croaker hepatocytes. Moreover, angptl4 expression was positively regulated by PPAR family (PPAR-α, β and γ), and expression of PPARγ was also significantly increased in response to OA and PA. Moreover, inhibition of PPARγ abrogated OA- or PA-induced angptl4 mRNA expression. Beyond that, PA might increase angptl4 expression partly via the insulin signalling. Overall, the expression of ANGPTL4 is strongly upregulated by OA and PA via PPARγ in the liver of croaker, which contributes to improve the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of ANGPTL4 in fish.
The effect and the mechanism of high glucose on fish muscle cells are not fully understood. In the present study, muscle cells of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were treated with high glucose (33 mM) in vitro. Cells were incubated in three kinds of medium containing 5 mM glucose, 5 mM glucose and 28 mM mannitol (as an isotonic contrast) or 33 mM glucose named the Control group, the Mannitol group and the high glucose (HG) group, respectively. Results showed that high glucose increased the ADP:ATP ratio and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), induced the release of cytochrome C (CytC) and cell apoptosis. High glucose also led to cell glycogen accumulation by increasing the glucose uptake ability and affecting the mRNA expressions of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase. Meanwhile, it activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), inhibited the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway and the expressions of myogenic regulatory factors (MRF). The expressions of myostatin-1 (mstn-1) and E3 ubiquitin ligases including muscle RING-finger protein 1 (murf-1) and muscle atrophy F-box protein (mafbx) were also increased by the high glucose treatment. No difference was found between the Mannitol group and the Control group. These results demonstrate that high glucose has the effects of inducing apoptosis, increasing glycogen accumulation and inhibiting protein synthesis on muscle cells of olive flounder. The mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signalling pathway, AMPK and mTOR pathways participated in these biological effects.
A 10-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary curcumin (CC) on growth antioxidant responses, fatty acid composition, and expression of lipid metabolism-related genes of large yellow croaker fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Four diets (lipid level at 18 %) were formulated with different levels of curcumin (0, 0·02, 0·04 and 0·06 %). The best growth performance was found in the 0·04 % curcumin group, with the body and hepatic lipid levels lower than the control group (0 % CC). The content of TAG, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol was the least in the 0·06 % curcumin group. The lowest malondialdehyde and the highest superoxide dismutase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity were observed in the 0·04 % curcumin group. The 0·04 % curcumin group had higher expression of Δ6fad, elovl5 and elovl4 and showed higher hepatic n-6 and n-3 PUFA. Expression of ppara, cpt1, and aco was significantly increased, while expression of srebp1 and fas was dramatically decreased in curcumin groups compared with the control group. Overall, 0·04 % curcumin supplementation could mitigate the negative effects caused by HFD and promote growth via reducing hepatic lipid deposition, improving antioxidant activity and increasing PUFA of large yellow croaker. To conclude, abnormal hepatic lipid deposition was probably due to increased fatty acid oxidation and reduced de novo synthesis of fatty acids.
The present study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary terrestrial oils (TO) supplemented with l-carnitine on growth performance, biochemical and antioxidant response, lipid metabolism and inflammation in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). Three iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic experimental diets were formulated with FO (fish oil, the control group), 75 % TO (75 % FO was substituted by the oil mixture with equal amounts of soyabean oil, linseed oil and pork lard) and 75 % TOC (75 % TO supplemented with 800 mg/kg l-carnitine). Compared with the control group, feed efficiency ratio and specific growth rate were significantly increased in fish fed diets with 75 % TO and 75 % TOC. Hepatic lipid content, serum TAG level, LDL-cholesterol level and the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory genes (tnfα and ifnγ) were significantly increased in fish fed the diet with 75 % TO compared with the control group. However, the supplementation of 800 mg/kg l-carnitine in the 75 % TO diet repressed hepatic lipid content, serum LDL-cholesterol level and the mRNA expression of tnfα and ifnγ in fish compared with fish fed the diet with 75 % TO. Total antioxidant capacity, the activity of superoxide dismutase, the mRNA expression of cpt-I and the activity of CPT-I were significantly increased in fish fed the diet with 75 % TOC compared with 75 % TO. In conclusion, these results suggested that the supplementation of 800 mg/kg l-carnitine in the diet with TO mixture could increase growth, antioxidant capacity and fatty acid oxidation and decrease the expression of inflammatory genes in large yellow croaker.
A previous study showed that flesh quality of large yellow croaker (LYC) was improved by feeding dietary hydroxyproline (Hyp, 0·69 %). The aim of the present study was to explore the underlying mechanisms using transcriptomics and metabolomics analysis. The metabolomics analysis showed that muscle metabolite profiles could be clearly separated between the basal diet and Hyp supplementation diet. Metabolites including betaine, Hyp, lactate, glucose-6-phosphate, trimethylamine N-oxide, taurine, creatine, inosine monophosphate, histamine and serine made significant contribution to the separation. Compared with the control diet, the transcriptomics analysis identified a total of 334 different expressed genes, of which 298 genes were up-regulated and thirty-six genes were down-regulated in the Hyp supplementation group. The altered genes of the Hyp supplementation group were involved in collagen metabolism, lipid metabolism and energy metabolism. The integrated results revealed that the increased muscle collagen content in the Hyp supplementation diet was partly because of its enhancement of biosynthesis and the reduction of degradation. The improvement of muscle quality by dietary Hyp supplementation could also be related to a good utilisation of glucose through enhancement of glycolysis. It was concluded that dietary Hyp supplementation could improve flesh quality because of comprehensive metabolism changes including elevated collagen content, glycolysis, lipid metabolism and flesh flavour of LYC. The present study provided a novel strategy to understand the underlying molecular mechanism of flesh quality of LYC fed diet with Hyp supplementation.
Dietary phospholipid (PL) supplementation has been shown to reduce lipid accumulation in the tissues of farmed fish; however, the mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. Thus, the present study was conducted to evaluate the potential impacts of PL on hepatic lipid metabolism both in vivo and in vitro. For in vivo study, four experimental diets – low lipid and low PL diet, as control diet (LL-LP diet, containing 12 % lipid and 1·5 % PL), low-lipid and high-PL diet (containing 12 % lipid and 8 % PL), high-lipid and low-PL diet (HL-LP diet, containing 20 % lipid and 1·5 % PL) and high-lipid and high-PL diet (HL-HP diet, containing 20 % lipid and 8 % PL) – were randomly allocated to four groups of large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) (three cages per group) with similar initial body weight (approximately 8 g). For in vitro study, primary hepatocytes isolated from large yellow croaker were incubated either with graded levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC) (0–250 μm) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) for CTP: choline phosphate cytidylyltranferase α (CCTα) (siRNA-CCTα). Results showed that survival was independent of dietary treatments (P>0·05). Weight gain and feed efficiency in the HL-HP group were significantly higher than in the LL-LP and HL-LP groups (P<0·05). High level of dietary PL could markedly reduce abnormal hepatic lipid accumulation induced by the HL-LP diet (P<0·05). Similarly, compared with the corresponding controls, a significant decrease/increase in lipid content was observed in primary hepatocytes incubated with PC/siRNA-CCTα (P<0·05). High level of dietary PL reversed the HL-LP diet-induced increased levels of mRNA of fatty acid uptake and lipid synthesis related genes (P<0·05). In addition, High level of dietary PL markedly down-regulated the transcript levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and enhanced the transcript levels of VLDL assembly-related genes regardless of dietary lipid levels (P<0·05). Compared with corresponding controls, primary hepatocytes treated with PC showed significantly higher mRNA expression of lipid synthesis and VLDL assembly-related genes and lower mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, with hepatocytes treated with siRNA-CCTα exhibiting the opposite trend (P<0·05). In summary, these results demonstrated that high level of dietary PL might reverse the HL-LP diet-induced abnormal lipid accumulation in the liver through inhibiting fatty acid uptake and lipid synthesis, together with promoting the lipid export at the transcriptional level. Lipid export-promoting effect of PC was confirmed by in vitro studies. The present study showed for the first time that PL or PC could influence various metabolic pathways to regulate hepatic lipid deposition in fish at least at the transcriptional level.
This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of oxidised dietary lipids and high-dose vitamin E (VE) on growth performance and immune responses of large yellow croaker. Juvenile fish (initial average body weight of 7·82 (sem 0·68) g) were fed diets containing either fresh fish oil (fresh diet, peroxide value (POV)=1·72 mEq/kg) or fish oil oxidised to varying degrees (oxidised diets, POV=28·29–104·21 mEq/kg), with or without supplementary 600 mg VE/kg diet, for 10 weeks in floating cages. Growth was significantly lower and feed intake (g/100 g body weight per d) was higher in fish fed the oxidised diet. Supplementation with VE increased the growth of fish fed the oxidised diets, but significantly decreased the growth of fish fed the fresh diet. Hepatosomatic index increased with increasing dietary POV and decreased with VE supplementation. Hepatic catalase activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde content were significantly higher in fish fed the oxidised diets, and these values decreased significantly following VE supplementation. However, hepatic SOD activity was enhanced by VE supplementation in fish fed the fresh diet. Air-exposure mortality was significantly increased by dietary POV, and this effect was inhibited by VE supplementation. These results suggest that dietary oxidised fish oil could stimulate the activities of antioxidant defence enzymes in stressed large yellow croaker. High-dose VE supplementation can alleviate oxidative stress of large yellow croaker fed oxidised fish oil, but can exert deleterious effects on fish in the absence of oxidative stress.
In this study, we chose a carnivorous fish, turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), to examine its nutrient-sensing and metabolic responses after ingestion of diets with fishmeal (FM), or 45 % of FM replaced by soyabean meal (34·6 % dry diet) balanced with or without essential amino acids (EAA) to match the amino acid profile of FM diet for 30 d. After a 1-month feeding trial, fish growth, feed efficiency and nutrient retention were markedly reduced by soyabean meal-incorporated (SMI) diets. Compared with the FM diet, SMI led to a reduction of postprandial influx of free amino acids, hypoactivated target of rapamycin signalling and a hyperactivated amino acid response pathway after refeeding, a status associated with reduced protein synthesis, impaired postprandial glycolysis and lipogenesis. These differential effects were not ameliorated by matching an EAA profile of soyabean meal to that of the FM diet through dietary amino acid supplementation. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the FM diet and SMI diets led to distinct nutrient-sensing responses, which in turn modulated metabolism and determined the utilisation efficiency of diets. Our results provide a new molecular explanation for the role of nutrient sensing in the inferior performance of aquafeeds in which FM is replaced by soyabean meal.
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) on growth performance, fatty acid composition and ARA metabolism-related gene expression in larval half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). Larvae (35 d after hatching, 54 (sem 1) mg) were fed diets with graded concentrations of ARA (0·01, 0·39, 0·70, 1·07, 1·42 and 2·86 % dry weight) five times per d to apparent satiation for 30 d. Results showed that increased dietary ARA concentration caused a significant non-linear rise to a plateau in survival rate, final body weight and thermal growth coefficient, and the maximum values occurred with the 1·42 % ARA treatment. As dietary ARA increased to 1·07 or 1·42 %, activities of trypsin, leucine aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase levels increased, but they decreased with higher ARA concentrations. The fatty acid composition of tongue sole larvae was almost well correlated with their dietary fatty acid profiles, and the EPA content of the larvae decreased with increasing dietary ARA. Meanwhile, the partial sequences of COX-1a (cyclo-oxygenase-1a), COX-1b (cyclo-oxygenase-1b), COX-2 (cyclo-oxygenase-2), 5-LOX (5-lipoxygenase) and CYP2J6-like (cytochrome P450 2J6-like) were also obtained. Both COX-2 and 5-LOX mRNA expression levels significantly increased to a plateau in an ‘L’-shaped manner as dietary ARA increased to 1·07 or 1·42 %, but no significant differences were found in the gene expression of COX-1a, COX-1b or CYP2J6-like. These results suggest that 1·07–1·42 % dietary ARA was beneficial to the growth performance of larval tongue sole, and the regulation of dietary ARA on the growth performance of larvae was probably involved in altering the mRNA expression of COX-2 and 5-LOX.
The effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on growth performance, non-specific immunity, antioxidant capacity, lipid deposition and related gene expression were investigated in the large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea). Fish (7·56 (sem 0·60) g) were fed soyabean oil-based diets with graded levels of CLA (0, 0·42, 0·83, 1·70 %) for 70 d. Quantitative PCR was used to assess the effects of CLA on the transcription of inflammation- and fatty acid oxidation-related genes. Growth in fish fed the diet with 0·42 % CLA was significantly higher. Also, phagocytic index and respiratory burst activity were significantly higher in fish fed the diets containing 0·42 and 0·83 % CLA, respectively. Hepatic total antioxidative capacity and catalase activities increased significantly when CLA increased from 0 to 0·83 %, and then decreased with further increase of CLA. However, hepatic malondialdehyde content decreased significantly as dietary CLA increased. Lipid concentration in the whole body and muscle increased significantly with increasing dietary CLA. Transcription of genes related to inflammation (cyclo-oxygenase-2 and IL-β) in the liver and kidney and fatty acid oxidation (carnitine palmitoyl transferase I and acyl CoA oxidase) in the kidney decreased significantly as dietary CLA increased. PPARα and acyl CoA oxidase expression in the liver decreased significantly as CLA increased from 0·42 to 1·70 %. These results strongly suggest that dietary CLA could significantly affect growth performance, non-specific immunity, antioxidant capacity, lipid deposition and transcription of inflammation- and fatty acid oxidation-related genes of the large yellow croaker. This may contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms related to the physiological effects of dietary CLA in fish.
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