The results of computer simulations of the absorption of diffracted X-rays in single-phase powders measured at cylindrical (or Debye–Scherrer capillary) geometry taking into consideration the size of the powder particles are presented. The samples are simulated by random dense packings of equal spheres. The calculations are carried out for different values of the ratio, Da, of particle size to cylinder diameter, the product, κ, of linear absorption coefficient and cylinder radius and the scattering angle 2θ. Strong deviations of the absorption factor from the values for the ideal case of very fine particles are found in the region 0≤2θ≤30°, and for medium and high values of κ,(κ≥5) and Da (Da≥0.002). The consequences for the experiment are discussed.