To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed serious challenges. It is vitally important to further clarify the epidemiological characteristics of the COVID-19 outbreak for future study and prevention and control measures. Epidemiological characteristics and spatial−temporal analysis were performed based on COVID-19 cases from 21 January 2020 to 1 March 2020 in Shandong Province, and close contacts were traced to construct transmission chains. A total of 758 laboratory-confirmed cases were reported in Shandong. The sex ratio was 1.27: 1 (M: F) and the median age was 42 (interquartile range: 32–55). The high-risk clusters were identified in the central, eastern and southern regions of Shandong from 25 January 2020 to 10 February 2020. We rebuilt 54 transmission chains involving 209 cases, of which 52.2% were family clusters, and three widespread infection chains were elaborated, occurring in Jining, Zaozhuang and Liaocheng, respectively. The geographical and temporal disparity may alert public health agencies to implement specific measures in regions with different risk, and should attach importance on how to avoid household and community transmission.
The Shiji (史記 Records of the Grand Historian) is of great value for Chinese history before 90 BCE. Many online databases provide character-based search of the Shiji. We go beyond simple search by creating an word-based open-access database of the Basic Annals (本纪) of the Shiji that allows the exploration of relationships between persons and the relationships between persons and named places.
To describe the laboratory findings of cases of death with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to establish a scoring system for predicting death, we conducted this single-centre, retrospective, observational study including 336 adult patients (≥18 years old) with severe or critically ill COVID-19 admitted in two wards of Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan, who had definite outcomes (death or discharge) between 1 February 2020 and 13 March 2020. Single variable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify mortality-related factors. We combined multiple factors to predict mortality, which was validated by receiver operating characteristic curves. As a result, in a total of 336 patients, 34 (10.1%) patients died during hospitalisation. Through multivariable logistic regression, we found that decreased lymphocyte ratio (Lymr, %) (odds ratio, OR 0.574, P < 0.001), elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (OR 1.513, P = 0.009), and raised D-dimer (DD) (OR 1.334, P = 0.002) at admission were closely related to death. The combined prediction model was developed by these factors with a sensitivity of 100.0% and specificity of 97.2%. In conclusion, decreased Lymr, elevated BUN, and raised DD were found to be in association with death outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID-19. A scoring system was developed to predict the clinical outcome of these patients.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Combined androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and radiation therapy (RT) is the standard of care treatment for non-metastatic prostate cancer (NMPC). Despite the efficacy, treatment-related symptoms including fatigue greatly reduce the quality of life of cancer patients. The goal of the study is to examine the influence of combined ADT/RT on fatigue and understand its underlying mechanisms. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Sixty-four participants with NMPC were enrolled. Fatigue was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Fatigue. Mitochondrial function parameters were measured as oxygen consumption from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) extracted from participants’ whole blood. An ADT/RT-induced fatigue mouse model was developed with fatigue measured as a reduction in voluntary wheel-running activity (VWRA) in 54 mice. Mitochondrial function was assessed in the ADT/RT mouse brains using Western blot analysis of Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and transcription factor A, mitochondrial (TFAM). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Fatigue in the ADT group was exacerbated during RT compared to the non-ADT group. This effect was specific to fatigue, as depressive symptoms were unaffected. PBMCs of fatigued subjects exhibited decreased ATP coupling efficiency compared to non-fatigued subjects, indicative of mitochondrial dysfunction. The ADT/RT mice demonstrated a synergistic effect of ADT and RT in decreasing VWRA. Brain tissues of ADT/RT mice exhibited decreased levels of GLUT4 and TFAM suggesting that impaired neuronal metabolic homeostasis may contribute to fatigue pathogenesis. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These findings suggest that fatigue induced by ADT/RT may be attributable to mitochondrial dysfunction both peripherally and in the central nervous system (CNS). The synergistic effect of ADT/RT is behaviorally reproducible in a mouse model, and its mechanism may be related to bioenergetics in the CNS.
In this paper, the generation of relativistic electron mirrors (REM) and the reflection of an ultra-short laser off the mirrors are discussed, applying two-dimension particle-in-cell simulations. REMs with ultra-high acceleration and expanding velocity can be produced from a solid nanofoil illuminated normally by an ultra-intense femtosecond laser pulse with a sharp rising edge. Chirped attosecond pulse can be produced through the reflection of a counter-propagating probe laser off the accelerating REM. In the electron moving frame, the plasma frequency of the REM keeps decreasing due to its rapid expansion. The laser frequency, on the contrary, keeps increasing due to the acceleration of REM and the relativistic Doppler shift from the lab frame to the electron moving frame. Within an ultra-short time interval, the two frequencies will be equal in the electron moving frame, which leads to the resonance between laser and REM. The reflected radiation near this interval and corresponding spectra will be amplified due to the resonance. Through adjusting the arriving time of the probe laser, a certain part of the reflected field could be selectively amplified or depressed, leading to the selective adjustment of the corresponding spectra.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2 virus) has been sustained in China since December 2019, and has become a pandemic. The mental health of frontline medical staff is a concern. In this study, we aimed to identify the factors influencing medical worker anxiety in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of anxiety among medical staff in China from 10 February 2020 to 20 February 2020 using the Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) to assess anxiety, with the criteria of normal (⩽49), mild (50–59), moderate (60–70) and severe anxiety (⩾70). We used multivariable linear regression to determine the factors (e.g. having direct contact when treating infected patients, being a medical staff worker from Hubei province, being a suspect case) for anxiety. We also used adjusted models to confirm independent factors for anxiety after adjusting for gender, age, education and marital status. Of 512 medical staff in China, 164 (32.03%) had had direct contact treating infected patients. The prevalence of anxiety was 12.5%, with 53 workers suffering from mild (10.35%), seven workers suffering from moderate (1.36%) and four workers suffering from severe anxiety (0.78%). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics (gender, age, education and marital status), medical staff who had had direct contact treating infected patients experienced higher anxiety scores than those who had not had direct contact (β value = 2.33, confidence interval (CI) 0.65–4.00; P = 0.0068). A similar trend was observed in medical staff from Hubei province, compared with those from other parts of China (β value = 3.67, CI 1.44–5.89; P = 0.0013). The most important variable was suspect cases with high anxiety scores, compared to non-suspect cases (β value = 4.44, CI 1.55–7.33; P = 0.0028). In this survey of hospital medical workers during the COVID-19 outbreak in China, we found that study participants experienced anxiety symptoms, especially those who had direct clinical contact with infected patients; as did those in the worst affected areas, including Hubei province; and those who were suspect cases. Governments and healthcare authorities should proactively implement appropriate psychological intervention programmes, to prevent, alleviate or treat increased anxiety.
We report two cases of respiratory toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection in fully vaccinated UK born adults following travel to Tunisia in October 2019. Both patients were successfully treated with antibiotics and neither received diphtheria antitoxin. Contact tracing was performed following a risk assessment but no additional cases were identified. This report highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for re-emerging infections in patients with a history of travel to high-risk areas outside Europe.
The COVID-19 pandemic has strained health care system resources and reduced the availability of life-sustaining and medical-grade personal protective equipment (PPE) though the combination of increased demand and disrupted manufacturing supply chains. As a result of these shortages, many health care providers have temporarily used largely untested, improvised PPE (iPPE). Lack of quality control for makeshift PPE and frequent repurposing of used items to conserve supplies increase both the risk of provider infection and nosocomial spread to uninfected patients. One strategy to reduce risk of infection and preserve existing equipment is the implementation of secondary barrier devices placed directly over patients or providers. The authors describe an inexpensive, disposable, positive-pressure head isolation unit that can be rapidly constructed from materials readily available in nearly all health care settings for under five US dollars. The unit was successfully deployed in Taiwan during the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak, and again during the COVID-19 pandemic. The iPPE worn directly by the health care workers (HCWs) can be donned prior to patient contact in the presence of an air source. This strategy may be more protective than a covering placed over the patient in an aerosol-generating environment, which requires the HCW to be in close contact with the patient prior to securing the protective device.
In nonlinear dynamics, there are three classic routes to chaos, namely the period-doubling route, the Ruelle–Takens–Newhouse route and the intermittency route. The first two routes have previously been observed in self-excited thermoacoustic systems, but the third has not. In this experimental study, we present evidence of the intermittency route to chaos in the self-excited regime of a prototypical thermoacoustic system – a laminar flame-driven Rijke tube. We identify the intermittency to be of type II from the Pomeau–Manneville scenario through an analysis of (i) the probability distribution of the quiescent epochs between successive bursts of chaos, (ii) the first return map, and (iii) the recurrence plot. By establishing the last of the three classic routes to chaos, this study strengthens the universality of how strange attractors arise in self-excited thermoacoustic systems, paving the way for the application of generic suppression strategies based on chaos control.
Reducing dietary CP content is an effective approach to reduce animal nitrogen excretion and save protein feed resources. However, it is not clear how reducing dietary CP content affects the nutrient digestion and absorption in the gut of ruminants, therefore it is difficult to accurately determine how much reduction in dietary CP content is appropriate. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of reduced dietary CP content on N balance, intestinal nutrient digestion and absorption, and rumen microbiota in growing goats. To determine N balance, 18 growing wether goats (25.0 ± 0.5 kg) were randomly assigned to one of three diets: 13.0% (control), 11.5% and 10.0% CP. Another 18 growing wether goats (25.0 ± 0.5 kg) were surgically fitted with ruminal, proximate duodenal, and terminal ileal fistulae and were randomly assigned to one of the three diets to investigate intestinal amino acid (AA) absorption and rumen microbiota. The results showed that fecal and urinary N excretion of goats fed diets containing 11.5% and 10.0% CP were lower than those of goats fed the control diet (P < 0.05). When compared with goats fed the control diet, N retention was decreased and apparent N digestibility in the entire gastrointestinal tract was increased in goats fed the 10% CP diet (P < 0.05). When compared with goats fed the control diet, the duodenal flow of lysine, tryptophan and phenylalanine was decreased in goats fed the 11.5% CP diet (P < 0.05) and that of lysine, methionine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, leucine, glutamic acid, tyrosine, essential AAs (EAAs) and total AAs (TAAs) was decreased in goats fed the 10.0% CP diet (P < 0.05). When compared with goats fed the control diet, the apparent absorption of TAAs in the small intestine was increased in goats fed the 11.5% CP diet (P < 0.05) and that of isoleucine, serine, cysteine, EAAs, non-essential AAs, and TAAs in the small intestine was increased in goats fed the 10.0% CP diet (P < 0.05). When compared with goats fed the control diet, the relative richness of Bacteroidetes and Fibrobacteres was increased and that of Proteobacteria and Synergistetes was decreased in the rumen of goats fed a diet with 10.0% CP. In conclusion, reducing dietary CP content reduced N excretion and increased nutrient utilization by improving rumen fermentation, enhancing nutrient digestion and absorption, and altering rumen microbiota in growing goats.
Introduction: Diagnosing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is of critical importance because of its associated morbidity and mortality. Diagnosing DVT can be challenging in the Emergency Department (ED) due to inconsistent adherence to, and utilization of the Wells rule. Both the age-adjusted and clinical probability adjusted D-dimer have been shown to decrease ultrasound (US) utilization rates. We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of the Wells score with D-dimer to the age-adjusted and clinical probability-adjusted D-dimer in Canadian ED patients tested for DVT. Methods: This was a health records review of ED patients investigated for DVT at two EDs over a two-year period. Inclusion criteria were ED physician ordered duplex ultrasonography or D-dimer for investigation of lower limb DVT. Patients under the age of 18 were excluded. DVT was considered to be present during the ED visit if DVT was diagnosed on duplex ultrasonography and was treated for acute DVT, or if the patient was subsequently diagnosed with pulmonary embolism (PE) or DVT during the next 30 days. Trained researchers extracted anonymized data. The Wells D-dimer, age-adjusted D-dimer, and the clinical probability-adjusted D-dimer rules were applied retrospectively. The rate of duplex ultrasonography imaging and the false negative rate was calculated for each rule. Results: Between April 1st 2013 and March 31st 2015, there were 1,198 patients tested for DVT. Of the low and moderate clinical pretest probability patients (Wells score ≤ 2), only 436 had a D-Dimer test and were eligible for our analysis. The average age of the patients was 59, 56% were female, and 4% had a malignancy. 207/436 patients (47.4%, 95%CI 42.8-52.2%) would have had US imaging for DVT if the age-adjusted D-dimer rule was used. 214/436 patients (49.1%, 95%CI 44.4-53.8%) would have had imaging for DVT if the clinical probability-adjusted D-dimer was used. If the Wells rule was used with the standard D-dimer cutoff of 500, 241/436 patients (55.2%, 95%CI 50.6-59.9%) would have had imaging for DVT. The false-negative rate for the Wells rule was 1.5% (95%CI 0.5-4.4%). The false-negative rate for the age-adjusted D-dimer rule was 1.3% (95%CI 0.4-3.8%). The false-negative rate for the clinical-probability adjusted D-Dimer was 1.8% (95%CI 0.7-4.5%). Conclusion: In comparison with the approach of the Wells score and D-dimer, both the age-adjusted and clinical probability-adjusted D-dimer diagnostic strategies could reduce the proportion of patients who require US imaging.
Familial risks of anxiety have been assessed in small case-control studies, usually based on reported, but not medically verified anxiety in family members; thus the degree of familial clustering for this disease remains to be established.
This 1 January 1973 to 31 December 2004 study of the entire population of Sweden linked information on family relationships from the nationwide Multi-Generation Register with information from the nationwide Swedish Hospital Discharge Register on first diagnoses of anxiety. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated by comparing risk in siblings of persons hospitalized for anxiety with risk in persons whose siblings had no hospital diagnosis of anxiety.
The sibling risk was 3.02, which was independent of gender and age differences between siblings. The SIR was highest in siblings < 20 years of age (3.99). Analysis of subtype risk showed that having a sibling diagnosed with any anxiety disorder resulted in increased risk of a number of disorders; highest increased risk was of social phobias (SIR 4.70, 95% CI, 1.96-11.0). Risk of Panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and mixed anxiety and depressive disorders was raised in female but not male siblings.
Heritable effects likely play an important role in the etiology of anxiety disorders, but the extent of their role remains to be established. Important contributions could be made by studies of gene-environment interactions that have sufficient sample sizes to produce reliable results.
Our aim was to explore the possible association between four SNPs related with 5-HTR2A signal pathways and phenotype characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD) in Chinese Han.
194 patients with recurrent major depressive episodes were from Chinese Han origin. 4 SNPs were detected with LDR (ligase detection reaction). The multidimensional scaling analysis was use for testing the association between different genotypes of four SNPs (5-HTR2A rs6311, Gβ3 rs5443, ADCY9 rs2230739 and PDE1A rs1549870 related with 5-HT2A signal pathway) and phenotype characteristic of MDD.
The multidimensional scaling illustrated: rs6311CC, rs5443CC and rs1549870GG with the certainly-existed fundamental symptom 2 were in the same zone; rs6311CC and accessory symptoms 7, and rs6311CC and depressive episode with psychotic symptoms and repeated episodes are in the same zone. The results showed rs6311CC had a close correlation with depressive symptoms.
It is concluded that rs6311 may be the functional point of the 5-HT2A gene in MDD; It is presumed that different genotypes of rs5443 and rs2230739 can modulate the second message signal pathways in MDD.
This study examines the association between the incidence of drug abuse (DA) and linking (communal) social capital, a theoretical concept describing the amount of trust between individuals and societal institutions.
We present results from an 8-year population-based cohort study that followed all residents in Sweden, aged 15-44, from 2003 through 2010, for a total of 1,700,896 men and 1,642,798 women. Social capital was conceptualized as the proportion of people in a geographically defined neighborhood who voted in local government elections. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and between-neighborhood variance.
We found robust associations between linking social capital and DA in men and women. For men, the OR for DA in the crude model was 2.11 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02-2.21] for those living in areas with the lowest vs. highest level of social capital. After accounting for neighborhood level deprivation, the OR fell to 1.59 (1.51-1-68), indicating that neighborhood deprivation lies in the pathway between linking social capital and DA. The ORs remained significant after accounting for age, family income, marital status, country of birth, education level, and region of residence, and after further accounting for comorbidities and family history of comorbidities and family history of DA. For women, the OR decreased from 2.15 (2.03-2.27) in the crude model to 1.31 (1.22-1.40) in the final model, adjusted for multiple neighborhood-level and individual-level variables.
Our study suggests that low linking social capital may have important independent effects on DA.
The implementation of advanced multi-level modulation schemes such as quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) in contrast to the conventional on–off keying is crucial to further boost the terahertz (THz) communications speed. Thereby, carrier phase noise reduction in the THz range is one of the key goals that need to be urgently achieved. In this paper, the photonic-based THz sources and the phase noise problem are briefly summarized. Then, a low phase-noise photonic source based on the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) optical fiber cavity is first applied for a 300-GHz-band QPSK wireless communication link. The highest data rate at forward-error-correction limited condition was 15 Gbaud utilizing the SBS-based photonic source with a small transmit power of ~ −36 dBm. Its transmission characteristics are evaluated and compared with the conventional optical frequency comb generator (OFCG)-based source at 5 Gbaud. The proposed SBS-based photonic source has been proven to offer better performances than the OFCG-based source with respect to the phase noise, optical carrier to noise ratio, and bit error rate in communications.
Archaeological research has documented the migration of Neolithic farmers onto the Tibetan Plateau by 4000 BC. How these incoming groups interacted, if at all, with local indigenous foragers, however, remains unclear. New archaeobotanical and zooarchaeological data from the Zongri site in the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau suggest that local foragers continued to hunt but supplemented their diet with agricultural products in the form of millet. The authors propose that, rather than being grown locally, this millet was acquired via exchange with farmers. This article highlights how indigenous foragers engaged in complex patterns of material and cultural exchange through encounters with newly arrived farmers.