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The Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plant workers experienced multiple stressors as both victims and onsite workers after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent nuclear accidents. Previous studies found that disaster-related exposures, including discrimination/slurs, were associated with their mental health. Their long-term impact has yet to be investigated.
A total of 968 plant workers (Daiichi, n = 571; Daini, n = 397) completed self-written questionnaires 2–3 months (time 1) and 14–15 months (time 2) after the disaster (response rate 55.0%). Sociodemographics, disaster-related experiences, and peritraumatic distress were assessed at time 1. At time 1 and time 2, general psychological distress (GPD) and post-traumatic stress response (PTSR) were measured, respectively, using the K6 scale and Impact of Event Scale Revised. We examined multivariate covariates of time 2 GPD and PTSR, adjusting for autocorrelations in the hierarchical multiple regression analyses.
Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD at time 1 (β = 0.491, p < 0.001) and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.065, p = 0.025, adjusted R2 = 0.24). Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted with higher PTSR at time 1 (β = 0.548, p < 0.001), higher age (β = 0.085, p = 0.005), and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.079, p = 0.003, adjusted R2 = 0.36).
Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1. Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted by higher PTSR, higher age, and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1.
Introduction: In order to achieve the best possible outcomes for patients requiring resuscitation (PRRs) in the emergency department (ED), health care providers (HCPs) must provide an efficient, multi-disciplinary and coordinated response. A quality improvement (QI) project was undertaken to improve HCP response to PRRs at two tertiary care hospital EDs in Toronto. Methods: We conducted a before-and-after mixed-method survey to evaluate the perception of the adequacy of HCP response and clarity of HCP role when responding to PRRs. The results were compared using the Chi-square test. Qualitative responses to the first survey were also used to inform the development of the QI project. Through interviews of key stakeholders and with continuous input from front-line ED HCPs, a multi-disciplinary team modified the ED resuscitation protocol. This included standardized pre-hospital communication form with paramedics, ED-wide overhead announcement of ‘Code Resus’, dedicated HCPs assigned to respond to PRRs, and specific duties assigned to each responder. Change initiatives were reinforced through education and posters in the ED. Six months after implementation, a second survey was conducted to evaluate the sustained effects of the intervention. Results: Baseline measures indicated that 16 of 52 (30.8%) nurses surveyed believed their role was often or always apparent to themselves and others when they attended to a PRR (on a 5-point rating scale). This proportion increased to 35 of 55 (63.6%) nurses in the post-implementation survey (p < 0.001). Regarding adequacy of the number of HCPs responding to PRRs, 17 of 39 (43.6%) physicians and 23 of 53 (43.4%) nurses surveyed thought the appropriate number of HCPs responded to PRRs; the remainder thought that there were too few or too many HCPs. In the post-implementation survey, 34 of 41 (82.9%) physicians (p < 0.001) and 36 of 56 (64.3%) nurses (p = 0.029) surveyed felt that the appropriate number of HCPs attended to PRRs. Conclusion: Using a quality improvement approach, we identified and quantified perceived deficiencies in HCP response to PRRs in the ED. Through feedback-based modifications of the ED resuscitation protocol and by engaging HCP stakeholders, change initiatives were implemented to improve HCP response. As a result, this project achieved significant and sustained improvements in HCPs’ perceived response to PRRs.
The effects of TiCl4 post-treatment on the physicochemical properties of porous TiO2 (pTiO2) layers fabricated at 300 °C and 400 °C (denoted as pTiO2(300) and pTiO2(400), respectively) in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite photovoltaic cells were investigated. Water contents (physisorbed water and water derived from surface hydroxyl groups) of pTiO2(300) and pTiO2(400) before and after TiCl4 post-treatment were measured by using temperature desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Moreover, structural analysis of the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite part was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). In the case of pTiO2(300), the content of water was increased by the TiCl4 post-treatment due to the removal of residual organic compounds that existed before the treatment. It then caused a change in the surface activity of pTiO2(300) and enhancement of solar cell performance and photocurrent density, though suppression of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite formation occurred. In comparison, contents of water were decreased for pTiO2(400), leading to enhancement of the conversion of PbI2 to CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. As a result, there were significant increases in short circuit current density (Jscs) and PCEs. The results showed that TiCl4 post-treatment is an effective approach to prepare high-performance CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells without heat treatment at a very high temperature.
Using the IRAM 30 m telescope, we perform a molecular line survey of the 3 and 2 mm wavelength ranges towards 5 selected positions in the Galactic center region, sampling shocked regions, ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray pervaded regions, and positions with rich organic chemistry. These surveys have the potential to be used as chemical templates for different types of activity, such as photodissociated regions (PDRs), shocks and X-ray dominated regions (XDRs). Complementary, molecular surveys done towards extragalactic nuclei, that are also dominated by these physical activities, were carried by our group.
We have investigated the effect of polytype and oxidation condition on the temperature dependence of channel mobility and threshold voltage in 4H- and 6H-SiC MOSFETs. The behaviors of the channel mobility are apparently different for 4H- and 6H-SiC MOSFETs. In contrast to the polytype effect, dry and wet oxidation samples have almost similar channel mobilities. The variation of the threshold voltage with temperature is proportional to the number of the interface states near the conduction band extracted from n-type MOS capacitors. Therefore, we argue that the distribution of the interface states near the conduction band in p-type SiC MOS structure can be represented by that in n-type SiC MOS structure. Although the oxidation condition varies the distribution of the interface states in the energy range between 0.2 and 0.4 eV from the conduction band, it has little influence on the channel mobility.
Two types of shape and contrast features of superconducting vortices in a Lorentz micrograph were obtained by the newly developed 1-MV field-emission transmission electron microscope on a Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+8(Bi-2212) thin specimen containing tilted columnar defects. The shape and contrast features could be consistently interpreted by the simulation that some vortices were pinned along tilted columnar defects and others were unpinned. The interesting property for temperature change of vortex core inside the material was also observed.
A single crystalline Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+8 which has columnar defects in its inside are observed by Lorentz microscopy using the newly developed 1-MV field emission electron microscope at the first time. The superconducting vortices are observed with higher contrast than ever. Simultaneous observation of vortices and columnar defect is succeeded in real time.
Nitrogen atoms exist in silicon as non-reactive nitrogen molecules. This is concluded from two I-R absorption experiments: one is the nitrogen isotope effects on N- N pairs and the other is silicon isotope shifts at 10 K. Intrinsic resistivities (over 20 K ohm-cm) are obtained by annealing at 1000°C, 1 min. in N2 in both p- and n-type nitrogen doped thin wafers. Resistivity increases are due to deep- level generations: 0.66 eV above the valence band for p-type and mainly 0.44 eV below the conduction band for n-type material. These deep levels are considered to be formed by nitrogen pairs and divacancies which are incorporated during growth. Since divacancies are easy to out diffuse to the wafers surface, the deep levels are also irreversibly removed. Diffusion coefficient of Si intersititialswici'ch are annihilated with divacancies in the lattice are calculated as 6×10−6cm2/s and 2×10−6cm2/s at 900°C and 1000°C respectively. Migration energy of Si interstitials is about 4.5 eV.
Highly oriented YBCO films were produced on MgO(100) single crystal substrates. The direction of c axis was perpendicular to the film plane, whereas those of a and b axes were at random directions. The critical current density of the films was significantly high ca. 7x105 A/cm2. The critical transition temperature (Tc) of the YBCO film formed on a metal substrate, predeposited with YSZ as a buffer layer, was similar to those of the YBCO on MgO substrate. The possibility for the formation of superconductor films on metal substrates is suggested from these results.
As telecommunication equipment that supports high-level information networks is being made portable, the requirements for telecommunication equipment to be small and lightweight are becoming stricter. Thus, miniaturization of semiconductor devices is necessary, and wafer dicing and chip thinning technologies are important key technologies to achieve it. Wafers are thinned by mechanical in-feed grinding using a grindstone containing diamond particles, and wafers are divided by mechanical blade dicing using a diamond blade. However, mechanical processes using diamond grits leave damage such as chipping, saw mark or residual strain on chip surfaces; thus, chip strength decreases. At chip thicknesses of 50 to 200 μm, such damage has to be avoided.
In this study, the relationship between chip residual damage and chip strength is examined, and novel wafer dicing and thinning technologies that realize an average chip strength have increased from 253 MPa to 1903 MPa are described.
Hg (mercury) in GaAs is known to be a moderately deep acceptor impurity, having a 52 meV activation energy. Optical properties of Hg acceptors in GaAs were systematically investigated as a function of Hg concentration, [Hg]. Samples were prepared by high-energy ion-implantation of Hg+ into GaAs grown by the liquid encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) method. Heat treatment was made by furnace annealing and rapid thermal annealing. Photoluminescence measurements at 2K revealed that the Hg-related so-called “g” line is formed in addition to the well-defined conduction band-to-Hg acceptor transition, (e, Hg). Additionally, three shallow emissions are formed for net hole concentrations INA-NDI greater than 2×1017cm−3 . This is the first demonstration that even Hg in GaAs makes multiple shallow emissions due to acceptor-acceptor pairs and LEC GaAs can be used for the investigations of these emissions.
Magnetic lines of force penetrating a superconducting thin foil have been investigated by means of electron holography. A field-emission TEM with a specially constructed cold stage was used to cool a Nb thin foil down to 4.5 K and apply magnetic fields up to 100 G. The specimen is tilted by 45° to both the electron beam and the magnetic field (applied horizontally) allowing the 2-D lattice of penetrating flux-lines to be discerned. The phase distribution of electrons transmitted through the specimen were quantitatively measured. Interference micrographs revealed tiny regions where the phase distribution rapidly changed. These regions coincided spatially with the spot-like contrast observed by Lorentz microscopy and were found to be quantized vortices containing a flux of h/2e. The experimental results were in good agreement with those predicted by theoretical simulations. Experiments exploring the vortex inner core structure at high resolution are presented.