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Maternal syphilis not only seriously affects the quality of life of pregnant women themselves but also may cause various adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). This study aimed to analyse the association between the related factors and APOs in maternal syphilis. 7,030 pregnant women infected with syphilis in Henan Province between January 2016 and December 2022 were selected as participants. Information on their demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment status, and pregnancy outcomes was collected. Multivariate logistic regression models and chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) decision tree models were used to analyse the factors associated with APOs. The multivariate logistic regression results showed that the syphilis infection history (OR = 1.207, 95% CI, 1.035–1.409), the occurrence of abnormality during pregnancy (OR = 5.001, 95% CI, 4.203–5.951), not receiving standard treatment (OR = 1.370, 95% CI, 1.095–1.716), not receiving any treatment (OR = 1.313, 95% CI, 1.105–1.559), and a titre ≥1:8 at diagnosis (OR = 1.350, 95%CI, 1.079–1.690) and before delivery (OR = 1.985, 95%CI, 1.463–2.694) were risk factors. A total of six influencing factors of APOs in syphilis-infected women were screened using the CHAID decision tree model. Integrated prevention measures such as early screening, scientific eugenics assessment, and standard syphilis treatment are of great significance in reducing the incidence of APOs for pregnant women infected with syphilis.
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