Various UK reports have identified issues of poor health and social care for people with an intellectual disability. Such reports emphasise the vital importance of addressing human rights issues in the future to improve and address shortcomings in such care. Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights affords protection for private and family life, and applies irrespective of whether someone has the capacity to make such decisions affecting their life. This in particular is important for people with an intellectual disability. Compared with the rest of the Convention, there has been relatively more case law pertaining to Article 8. This review considers Article 8 case law involving people with an intellectual disability in the areas of community care, accommodation, day centres, lifting and hoisting, sexual relations, marriage and education. In doing so, it demonstrates the varied application and core principles for use of the Article in clinical practice and decision-making.