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The Weigl Colour-Form Sorting Test is a brief, widely used test of executive function. So far, it is unknown whether this test is specific to frontal lobe damage. Our aim was to investigate Weigl performance in patients with focal, unilateral, left or right, frontal, or non-frontal lesions.
We retrospectively analysed data from patients with focal, unilateral, left or right, frontal (n = 37), or non-frontal (n = 46) lesions who had completed the Weigl. Pass/failure (two correct solutions/less than two correct solutions) and errors were analysed.
A greater proportion of frontal patients failed the Weigl than non-frontal patients, which was highly significant (p < 0.001). In patients who failed the test, a significantly greater proportion of frontal patients provided the same solution twice. No significant differences in Weigl performance were found between patients with left versus right hemisphere lesions or left versus right frontal lesions. There was no significant correlation between performance on the Weigl and tests tapping fluid intelligence.
The Weigl is specific to frontal lobe lesions and not underpinned by fluid intelligence. Both pass/failure on this test and error types are informative. Hence, the Weigl is suitable for assessing frontal lobe dysfunction.
The relationship between the subtypes of psychotic experiences (PEs) and common mental health symptoms remains unclear. The current study aims to establish the 12-month prevalence of PEs in a representative sample of community-dwelling Chinese population in Hong Kong and explore the relationship of types of PEs and common mental health symptoms.
This is a population-based two-phase household survey of Chinese population in Hong Kong aged 16–75 (N = 5719) conducted between 2010 and 2013 and a 2-year follow-up study of PEs positive subjects (N = 152). PEs were measured with Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ) and subjects who endorsed any item on the PSQ without a clinical diagnosis of psychotic disorder were considered as PE-positive. Types of PEs were characterized using a number of PEs (single v. multiple) and latent class analysis. All PE-positive subjects were assessed with common mental health symptoms and suicidal ideations at baseline and 2-year follow-up. PE status was also assessed at 2-year follow-up.
The 12-month prevalence of PEs in Hong Kong was 2.7% with 21.1% had multiple PEs. Three latent classes of PEs were identified: hallucination, paranoia and mixed. Multiple PEs and hallucination latent class of PEs were associated with higher levels of common mental health symptoms. PE persistent rate at 2-year follow-up was 15.1%. Multiple PEs was associated with poorer mental health at 2-year follow-up.
Results highlighted the transient and heterogeneous nature of PEs, and that multiple PEs and hallucination subtype of PEs may be specific indices of poorer common mental health.
Joseph Chan and Franz Mang deploy analytic methods to elucidate Confucian political philosophy and ethics for the twenty-first century, arguing that Confucian ideals offer a pathway toward overcoming modern thought’s neglect of the cultivation of ethical character as constitutive of the life well lived – an idea common to ancient thought in both Western and East Asian contexts. In this chapter, they accept a key challenge of deparochializing political theory: that it forces us out of our intellectual comfort zones to engage with traditions that are new to us. In this spirit, they construct a conversation between Western political thought, Confucianism, and Islam on the idea of popular sovereignty. They develop reconstructive-analytic accounts of mainstream Confucian and Islamic political thought and argue that neither tradition can be reconciled at a philosophical level with the idea of the people as the ultimate source of legitimate political authority. Even though strands of both Confucianism and Islam are compatible with democracy, popular sovereignty cannot serve as a “useful myth” in Confucian- or Islamic-heritage societies, for different reasons. These societies can benefit from projects of democratization and civil liberties but can dispense with the doctrine of popular sovereignty as the foundation for such projects.
The loss of external tags is one of the biggest problems in mark-recapture research. An evaluation of tag loss is therefore required to improve tagging methodology, select appropriate tag types, and accurately estimate population status and dynamics. We estimated tag loss probability of double-tagged green turtles (Chelonia mydas) nesting at Redang Island, Malaysia (05°49′ N 103°00′ E), from 1993–2014. For both titanium and Inconel tags, we found a tag loss pattern with a high initial tag loss rate that decreased to an asymptote near a constant value above zero. The initial tag loss probability for titanium tags was higher than for Inconel tags, and titanium tags were lost earlier than Inconel tags in more individuals when both types of tags were attached. In addition, comparison of the tag loss probability of Inconel tags attached during the period when tagging staff changed every year to that when senior tagging staff were not changed, indicated that lack of consistency in tagging staff affected the application of at least one of two Inconel tags. Estimated tag loss probability was incorporated into a recapture model, and annual survival probability was estimated to be 0.893 (95% confidence interval: 0.857–0.921).
The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the measurement structure of the Perceived Empathic and Social Self-Efficacy Scale amongst 194 individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) and (2) to establish construct validity for the Perceived Empathic and Social Self-Efficacy Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a two-factor measurement structure of the Perceived Empathic and Social Self-Efficacy Scale, which was positively associated with insight, social support, and life satisfaction. The Perceived Empathic and Social Self-Efficacy Scale is a useful measure to assess social skills amongst individuals with SMI in rehabilitation counselling.
What makes a government legitimate? Why do people voluntarily comply with laws, even when no one is watching? The idea of political legitimacy captures the fact that people obey when they think governments' actions accord with valid principles. For some, what matters most is the government's performance on security and the economy. For others, only a government that follows democratic principles can be legitimate. Political legitimacy is therefore a two-sided reality that scholars studying the acceptance of governments need to take into account. The diversity and backgrounds of East Asian nations provides a particular challenge when trying to determine the level of political legitimacy of individual governments. This book brings together both political philosophers and political scientists to examine the distinctive forms of political legitimacy that exist in contemporary East Asia. It is essential reading for all academic researchers of East Asian government, politics and comparative politics.
A political order enjoys legitimacy when its citizens or subjects have reason to believe that its claim to power is based on rightful authority, and its exercise of power can be justified according to accepted principles or norms. Political legitimacy is thus always a two-sided affair; intrinsically, it entails both empirical and normative dimensions. Understood from an empirical or sociological point of view, a state or regime is legitimate to the extent that its people accept its authority and see its actions as justifiable according to reasons they accept as valid. The normative dimension of legitimacy concerns the question of whether the norms by which the political order justifies its power ought to be regarded as valid norms. A state can enjoy sociological legitimacy without meeting coherent criteria of normative legitimacy. A state that can be rationally justified according to a particular conception of normative legitimacy may not be legitimate in the eyes of its people if they do not embrace the normative premises that underwrite this justification. To fully understand the dynamics of political legitimation in a given context requires attentiveness to both its empirical and normative aspects.
Yet despite repeated admonitions from scholars who study political legitimacy, most scholarly work on the concept tends to address its normative and empirical dimensions as separate enterprises. Political philosophers seek to identify the principles for evaluating the moral justifiability of political power. Empirical social scientists investigate the factors behind a people's acceptance or rejection of political elites’ claims to govern. Neither approach seems to be entirely satisfactory on its own. A purely normative approach that abstracts away from particular contexts in constructing an ideal theory of legitimacy is vulnerable to the challenge that it has little practical relevance. Legitimacy is about power relations between rulers and ruled; surely a consideration of the reasons that motivate agents in a particular order is relevant to evaluating the legitimacy of power relations in that order. Likewise, a social scientific approach that takes citizens’ statements of support for a state as indicators of political legitimacy has not shed much light on the state's legitimacy or illegitimacy if it has not also probed the normative principles according to which they believe the state's actions to be justified.
Anxiety disorders are prevalent yet under-recognized in late life. We examined the prevalence of anxiety disorders in a representative sample of community dwelling older adults in Hong Kong.
Data on 1,158 non-demented respondents aged 60–75 years were extracted from the Hong Kong Mental Morbidity survey (HKMMS). Anxiety was assessed with the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R).
One hundred and thirty-seven respondents (11.9%, 95% CI = 10–13.7%) had common mental disorders with a CIS-R score of 12 or above. 8% (95% CI = 6.5–9.6%) had anxiety, 2.2% (95% CI = 1.3–3%) had an anxiety disorder comorbid with depressive disorder, and 1.7% (95% CI = 1–2.5%) had depression. Anxious individuals were more likely to be females (χ2 = 25.3, p < 0.001), had higher chronic physical burden (t = −9.3, p < 0.001), lower SF-12 physical functioning score (t = 9.2, p < 0.001), and poorer delayed recall (t = 2.3, p = 0.022). The risk of anxiety was higher for females (OR 2.8, 95% C.I. 1.7–4.6, p < 0.001) and those with physical illnesses (OR 1.4, 95% C.I. 1.3–1.6, p < 0.001). The risk of anxiety disorders increased in those with disorders of cardiovascular (OR 1.9, 95% C.I. 1.2–2.9, p = 0.003), musculoskeletal (OR 2.0, 95% C.I. 1.5–2.7, p < 0.001), and genitourinary system (OR 2.0, 95% C.I. 1.3–3.2, p = 0.002).
The prevalence of anxiety disorders in Hong Kong older population was 8%. Female gender and those with poor physical health were at a greater risk of developing anxiety disorders. Our findings also suggested potential risk for early sign of memory impairment in cognitively healthy individuals with anxiety disorders.
A new instrument for high-resolution optical logging has been built and tested in Antarctica. Its purpose is to obtain records of volcanic products and other scattering features, such as bubbles and impurities, preserved in polar ice sheets, and it achieves this by using long wavelength near-infrared light that is absorbed by the ice before many scattering events occur. Longer wavelengths ensure that the return signal is composed primarily of a single or few backscattering event(s) that limit its spatial spread. The compact optical logger features no components on its body that draw power, which minimizes its size and weight. A prototype of the logger was built and tested at Siple Dome A borehole, and the results were correlated with prior optical logging profiles and records of volcanic products from collected ice core samples.
To examine the unique neuropsychological presentation in adults with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HF-ASD) by comparison with adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Adults with ASD referred to a specialty clinic (n=26) were compared to two non-ASD groups with (n=52) and without (n=52) ADHD of similar age and sex.
No differences in IQ were found. Subjects with HF-ASD were significantly more impaired than both comparison groups in processing speed, cognitive flexibility and sight words. Subjects with HF-ASD were more impaired than controls in working memory, but not the ADHD group.
These findings suggest that there may be specific neuropsychological correlates of HF-ASD differing from ADHD that could have significant implications for identifying individuals at risk for ASD.
A method has been devised and tested for measuring the c-axis orientation of crystal grains in thin sections of glacier ice. The crystal orientation and grain size of ice are of great interest to glaciologists since these parameters contain information on the prior thermal and flow history of the ice. The traditional method of determining c-axis orientation involves a transmission measurement through an ice sample, a process that is time-consuming and therefore impractical for obtaining a continuous record. A reflection- or backscatter-based method could potentially be used inside boreholes, with bubbles as reflectors to avoid such drawbacks. The concept demonstration of this paper is performed on ice slices, enabling a direct comparison of accuracy with traditional methods. Measurements of the crystal orientations (θ, ϕ) in 11 grains showed an average error of ±0.8° in ϕ, with no grain error >1.4°. Measurements of θ showed an average error of ±8.2° on ten grains, with unexplained disagreement on the remaining grain. Although the technique is applied specifically to glacier ice, it should be generally applicable to any transparent birefringent polycrystalline material.
“Political meritocracy” is defined in this volume as “the idea that a political system should aim to select and promote leaders with superior ability and virtue.” Political meritocracy is thus different from democracy, which selects officials according to the votes of citizens; it is also different from monarchy, which selects rulers according to the principle of heredity. Political meritocracy is not equivalent to “meritorious rule” or “meritorious governance.” The former is primarily a selection principle and mechanism, and the latter is a quality of government or governance. “Meritorious rule” or “governance” refers to the fact that those in power are in fact of merit and do govern effectively.
It is important to distinguish between political meritocracy and meritorious rule in the context of a debate on the pros and cons of meritocracy. Meritocracy, one might argue, does not guarantee the selection of the meritorious – selection mechanisms may be imperfect or faulty and fail to assess the appropriate merit or prevent abuse in the selection process. Meritocracy also does not guarantee meritorious governance, for the meritocratically selected may not govern effectively. In addition, under certain favorable conditions, nonmeritocratic systems such as monarchy and democracy might achieve meritorious governance to a considerable extent.
This selective review provides an overview of salient research findings related to employers' attitudes towards disability and prospective influences on employers to improve employment outcomes of people with disabilities. Research studies included for review are mainly those which investigated employer attitudes towards disability as predispositions to hiring people with disability. Selected studies were classified into three categories including hiring and accommodating employees with disabilities, work performance, and affective reactions and behavioural intentions of employers. Excluded from the review were studies that investigated other factors influencing employer attitudes toward disability. Altogether 34 research studies from the period of 1987 until 2012 were included in the review. Primary databases for the review included ProQuest, Ebscohost, Lexus Nexus, ERICK Database and the Sage Sociology Collection. This review of the demand-side employment literature suggests employers hold relatively positive attitudes regarding individuals with disabilities. However, employer affective reactions and behavioural intentions of employers towards disability in the work setting were less positive and negatively impact hiring decisions, provision of accommodations and work performance appraisals. Employer attitudes represent an important demand-side factor impacting full participation in competitive employment for individuals with disabilities. While employers report generally positive attitudes toward disability, hiring practices may still be discriminatory. Use by rehabilitation professionals of demand-side strategies with employers would likely result in higher rates of work participation by people with disabilities.