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Background: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are important causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Long-term national MRSA BSI surveillance establishes rates for internal and external comparison and provide insight into epidemiologic, molecular, and resistance trends. Here, we present and discuss National MRSA BSI incidence rates and trends over time in Canadian acute-care hospitals from 2008 to 2018. Methods: The Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Programme (CNISP) is a collaborative effort of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada. Since 1995, the CNISP has conducted hospital-based sentinel surveillance of MRSA BSIs. Data were collected using standardized definitions and forms from hospitals that participate in the CNISP (48 hospitals in 2008 to 62 hospitals in 2018). For each MRSA BSI identiﬁed, the medical record was reviewed for clinical and demographic information and when possible, 1 blood-culture isolate per patient was submitted to a central laboratory for further molecular characterization and susceptibility testing. Results: From 2008 to 2013, MRSA BSI rates per 10,000 patient days were relatively stable (0.60–0.56). Since 2014, MRSA BSI rates have gradually increased from 0.66 to 1.05 in 2018. Although healthcare-associated (HA) MRSA BSI has shown a minimal increase (0.40 in 2014 to 0.51 in 2018), community-acquired (CA) MRSA BSI has increased by 150%, from 0.20 in 2014 to 0.50 in 2018 (Fig. 1). Laboratory characterization revealed that the proportion of isolates identified as CMRSA 2 (USA 100) decreased each year, from 39% in 2015 to 28% in 2018, while CMRSA 10 (USA 300) has increased from 41% to 47%. Susceptibility testing shows a decrease in clindamycin resistance from 82% in 2013 to 41% in 2018. Conclusions: Over the last decade, ongoing prospective MRSA BSI surveillance has shown relatively stable HA-MRSA rates, while CA-MRSA BSI rates have risen substantially. The proportion of isolates most commonly associated with HA-MRSA BSI (CMRSA2/USA 100) are decreasing and, given that resistance trends are tied to the prevalence of specific epidemic types, a large decrease in clindamycin resistance has been observed. MRSA BSI surveillance has shown a changing pattern in the epidemiology and laboratory characterization of MRSA BSI. The addition of hospitals in later years that may have had higher rates of CA-MRSA BSI could be a confounding factor. Continued comprehensive national surveillance will provide valuable information to address the challenges of infection prevention and control of MRSA BSI in hospitals.
In 31 patients, Phaeoacremonium parasiticum was recovered from bronchoscopy specimens (biopsies and aspirates). The pseudo-outbreak was caused by contaminated ice used to control hemorrhage during bronchoscopy and was associated with deficiencies in equipment cleaning. The bronchoscopy technique was modified, the ice dispenser was disinfected, bronchoscope reprocessing was improved, and there were no recurrences.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(8):1063–1065
To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of preoperative skin antiseptic preparations and application techniques for the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs).
Systematic review of the literature using Medline, EMBASE, and other databases, for the period January 2001 to June 2011.
Comparative studies (including randomized and nonrandomized trials) of preoperative skin antisepsis preparations and application techniques were included. Two researchers reviewed each study and extracted data using standardized tables developed before the study. Studies were reviewed for their methodological quality and clinical findings.
Twenty studies (n = 9,520 patients) were included in the review. The results indicated that presurgical antiseptic showering is effective for reducing skin flora and may reduce SSI rates. Given the heterogeneity of the studies and the results, conclusions about which antiseptic is more effective at reducing SSIs cannot be drawn.
The evidence suggests that preoperative antiseptic showers reduce bacterial colonization and may be effective at preventing SSIs. The antiseptic application method is inconsequential, and data are lacking to suggest which antiseptic solution is the most effective. Disinfectant products are often mixed with alcohol or water, which makes it difficult to form overall conclusions regarding an active ingredient. Large, well-conducted randomized controlled trials with consistent protocols comparing agents in the same bases are needed to provide unequivocal evidence on the effectiveness of one antiseptic preparation over another for the prevention of SSIs.
Carcinomatous meningitis is defined as leptomeningeal infiltration by malignant cells. A case of carcinomatous meningitis, originally diagnosed as viral meningitis, is presented here to highlight the importance of maintaining a broad differential diagnosis in patients with evidence of meningeal irritation. Clinical and laboratory clues that suggest a diagnosis of carcinomatous meningitis in a patient with meningeal irritation include the presence and type of underlying malignancy (more common with breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma), absence of fever, presence of radicular pain, evidence of both cranial and spinal involvement, consistent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings (increased opening pressure, elevated protein concentration, decreased glucose, increased white cell count), and supportive neuroimaging. Diagnosis is based on positive CSF cytology results, which may require multiple lumbar puncture procedures to obtain. For patients with a known primary malignancy who present to the emergency department with symptoms and/or signs of meningeal irritation, carcinomatous meningitis should be included in the differential diagnosis.
A retrospective case-control and cohort analysis of hemodialysis patients was done to identify risk factors for spondylodiscitis. These risk factors included bacteremia, receipt of blood products, invasive procedures, and establishment of vascular access. The death rate was greater for case subjects than for control subjects (odds ratio, 2.7).
Surveillance for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in sentinel Canadian hospitals has been conducted since 1999. From 1999 to 2005, the rate of VRE detection increased from 0.37 to 1.32 cases per 1,000 patients admitted, and the rate of VRE infection increased from 0.02 to 0.05 cases per 1,000 patients admitted. Thirty-three percent of all patients with VRE detected that were reported during 1999-2005 were identified in 2005, with increases seen in all regions of Canada. Although the incidence rate of VRE carriage in Canada is increasing, it remains very low.
An otherwise well 21-year-old man from Northwestern Ontario presented to our emergency department in Winnipeg, Manitoba, with a 2-month history of cough, progressively increasing dyspnea, hemoptysis and a 15-kg weight loss. His symptoms were worsening despite antibiotic treatment for presumed bacterial pneumonia. His past history included work as a seasonal labourer clearing brush. He was not hypoxic on room air, but his chest radiograph revealed a miliary pattern and bilateral infiltrates. A Mantoux test for tuberculosis was non-reactive, and the sputum gram stain was unremarkable. Empiric therapy was initiated for blastomycosis and the diagnosis was confirmed with a calcofluor stain of the sputum. Although blastomycosis is rare in most regions in North America, there is an unusually high incidence of blastomycosis in Northwestern Ontario. This case highlights the intolerance and utility of knowledge of the local epidemiology in establishing difficult diagnoses of regional importance, such as fungal pneumonias.
Bloodstream infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients receiving long-term hemodialysis. We wanted to determine the incidence of hemodialysis-related bloodstream infections in Canadian centers participating in the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program.
Prospective surveillance for hemodialysis-related bloodstream infections was performed in 11 centers during a 6-month period. Bloodstream infections were defined by published criteria. Hemodialysis denominators included the number of dialysis procedures, the number of patient-days on dialysis, and the frequencies of different types of vascular access.
There were 184 bloodstream infections in 133,158 dialysis procedures (1.4 per 1,000) and 316,953 patient-days (0.6 per 1,000). Hemodialysis access through arteriovenous (AV) fistulae was associated with the lowest risk for bloodstream infection (0.2 per 1,000 dialysis procedures). The relative risk for infection was 2.5 with AV graft access, 15.5 with cuffed and tunneled central venous catheter (CVC) access, and 22.5 with uncuffed CVC access (P < .001). There was marked variation among the 11 centers in the means of vascular access used for hemodialysis. Significant variation in infection rates was observed among the centers when controlling for types of access.
There was a hierarchy of risk of hemodialysis-related bloodstream infection according to type of vascular access. There was significant variation in the type of vascular access being used among the Canadian hemodialysis centers, and also variation in access-specific infection rates between centers.
This point-prevalence survey of healthcare workers' scissors demonstrates that of 232 scissors sampled, 182 (78.4%) were colonized with bacteria. The scissors of nurses and those for communal use were most frequently contaminated. Cleaning of scissors occurred infrequently, but wiping scissors with an alcohol swab effectively disinfected them. The suspicion that scissors may harbor and potentially transmit microorganisms, including antibiotic-resistant bacteria, has been confirmed.
A methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain introduced into the largest tertiary-care teaching hospital in Manitoba in 1993 led to a sustained outbreak with secondary outbreaks at one community hospital, two large long-term-care facilities, and nosocomial transmission at a second teaching hospital. Control measures were consistent at each institution and were coordinated on a province-wide basis. MRSA is not currently endemic in any facility in the province.
To describe the demographic, clinical, and microbiologic characteristics of patients who develop nosocomial pneumonia on general medical and surgical wards of a tertiary-care hospital.
A one-year, prospective, descriptive study.
a 1,100-bed, tertiary-care, urban hospital.
Patients experiencing nosocomial pneumonia were identified through surveillance on general medical and surgical wards, using a standard case definition.
92 pneumonias in 85 patients on general wards were identified. The mean age of patients was 63 ±? 17 years, 55 patients (65%) were male, and 75 cases of pneumonia (81%) were acquired on surgical wards. Bacteremia was identified in 8 (13%) of 62 episodes, and 48 (52%) grew potential pathogens from respiratory specimens. Twenty-six patients (28%) required transfer to the intensive-care unit (ICU), and 20 (22%) received mechanical ventilation. By multivariate analysis, patients with a thoracic surgical procedure or with Staphylococcus aureus isolated from respiratory secretions were more likely to require ICU admission. The overall mortality rate was 20% (17/85), with a directly associated mortality of 14% (12/85). Patients who died were older, more frequently resided on a medical ward, and had a greater mean number of comorbidities. These patients often were treated nonaggressively and were not considered candidates for ICU admission due to advanced age and poor underlying clinical status.
Although the morbidity of nosocomial pneumonia in this population was high, as evidenced by high rates of transfer to ICU, the directly associated mortality was relatively low. Those requiring ICU admission require further study to identify preventive measures that could decrease the morbidity in this group. Interventions to prevent pneumonia or to improve prognosis may not be feasible for the majority of these patients who die from nosocomial pneumonia.
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