The Canadian Association for Child Neurology (CACN) was founded in June 1971 to combine neurologists interested in children and paediatricians interested in the nervous system into an organization which would promote the development of this subspecialty. Initially, the members of the Association mostly wished to have a training programme under the combined supervision of University Departments of Paediatrics and Neurology. However, under the influence of the Royal College of Physicians & Surgeons of Canada, and its Committee on Neurology, the training of child neurologists was organized in a manner analogous to that of neurologists for adults, though with an initial one or two years of paediatrics instead of medicine. By 1975, four years within a recognized neurological training programme could lead to the Certification Examination in Neurology, as modified for paediatric neurology. In 1981, the CACN also joined the Canadian Congress of Neurological Sciences. It has played an increasing part in child care and also in academic studies. However, evidence will be presented to show that the present number of paediatric neurologists in Canada is insufficient. The number of trainees also appears inadequate, and increased funding for training positions is needed. Close cooperation between paediatric neurologists, rehabilitation experts, developmental paediatricians and related subspecialists is required.