Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are complex vascular lesions that typically present with hemorrhage or seizures. Computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and conventional cerebral angiography are the standard essential diagnostic tools utilized in planning the treatment of an AVM. Brain AVMs are complex cerebrovascular lesions capable of protean symptomatology. They are an infrequent, but serious cause of stroke that often occurs in young people. Most commonly, they result in hemorrhagic stroke by bleeding into the parenchyma of the brain. Much less commonly, they result in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Ischemic stroke is distinctly uncommon with cerebral AVMs but occurs occasionally due to retrograde thrombosis of feeding arteries frequently associated with complete or partial thrombosis of the AVM. The three treatment modalities available to patients with cerebral AVMs, embolization, radiosurgery, and surgical excision, should be carefully considered in each patient and should not be thought of as being interchangeable.