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Patients colonized or infected with vancomycin-resistant enterococcus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus may be at risk of acquiring vancomycin-resistant S. aureus if the vanA gene is transferred from vancomycin-resistant enterococcus to methicillin-resistant S. aureus..
Our goal was to identify risk factors for cocolonization or coinfection (CC/CI) with vancomycin-resistant enterococcus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus.
We conducted a descriptive, epidemiologic study of all patients with CC/CI identified from January 1998 to May 2003 and a nested case-control study of a cohort of patients hospitalized in the burn and wound unit.
We conducted our study in a 813-bed tertiary care university teaching hospital.
The study population consisted of patients found to have CC/CI during the study period.
Descriptive epidemiologic data were collected from hospital records of all patients identified as having CC/CI. A subset of patients hospitalized in the burn and wound unit were included in a case-control study.
CC/CI was detected in 71% of the patients during a single hospital stay. The burn and wound unit, which does active surveillance for both organisms, and the general medicine unit, which does not do active surveillance for either organism, cared for more than one-half of these patients. Among patients being cared for in the burn and wound unit, having exposure to 2 or more invasive devices (central venous catheters, indwelling urinary catheters, and enteral feeding tubes) and renal insufficiency were independent risk factors for CC/CI.
Patients with CC/CI are the population at greatest risk for vancomycin-resistant S. aureus colonization or infection. The number of invasive devices to which patients are exposed and, thus, possibly the patients' underlying severity of illness, as well as renal insufficiency, appear to be risk factors for CC/CI.
To identify infection control policies and practices used by long-term-care facilities (LTCFs) in Iowa for residents with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and to estimate the prevalence of residents known to have these organisms.
LTCFs in Iowa from December 2002 through March 2003.
Of the 429 LTCFs in Iowa, 331 (77%) responded to the survey. The estimated prevalence of residents known to have MRSA was 13.4 per 1,000 and that of residents known to have VRE was 2.3 per 1,000. Facilities owned by the government or those with an average of more than 86 occupied beds were more likely to have residents known to have MRSA and VRE (P = .002 and .007, respectively). Of the responding facilities, 7.3% acknowledged that they refused to accept individuals known to have MRSA and 16.9% acknowledged that they refused to accept those known to have VRE. Facilities in large communities (population, > 100,000) were least likely to deny admission to an individual known to have either MRSA or VRE (P = .05). Most facilities reported adhering to the national guidelines, but fewer than half (44.7%) of the respondents had heard of the Iowa Antibiotic Resistance Task Force's guidelines regarding residents with MRSA or VRE.
Many LTCFs in Iowa care for residents known to have MRSA or VRE, but some refuse to admit these individuals. Infection control personnel and public health officials should work together to educate LTCF staff so that residents receive proper care and resistant organisms do not spread within this setting.
Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is a risk factor for surgical-site infections (SSIs) caused by S. aureus, and eradication of carriage reduces postoperative nosocomial infections caused by it. No study has compared large groups of preoperative carriers and non-carriers to identify factors that are linked to S. aureus nasal carriage.
While conducting a clinical trial evaluating whether mupirocin prevented S. aureus SSIs, we prospectively collected data on 70 patient characteristics that might be associated with S. aureus carriage. We performed stepwise logistic regression analysis.
Of the 4,030 patients, 891 (22%) carried S. aureus. Independent risk factors for S. aureus nasal carriage were obesity (odds ratio [OR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 1.11-1.50), male gender (OR, 1.29; CI95,1.11-1.51), and a history of a cerebrovascular accident (OR, 1.53; CI95, 1.03-2.25) for all patients. Factors associated with nasal carriage varied somewhat by surgical specialty. In all groups, preoperative use of antimicrobial agents was independently associated with a lower risk of carrying S. aureus in the nares. Previously identified risk factors were not significantly associated with S. aureus nasal carriage in this large group of surgical patients.
Male gender, obesity, and a history of a cerebrovascular accident were identified as risk factors for S. aureus nasal carriage. It remains to be seen whether preoperative weight loss would reduce the rate of nasal carriage. In addition, the value of screening this patient population for S. aureus nasal carriage merits further investigation.
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