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In retrospect, the mid-1970s seem like the high point of what one might call the crisis of the West – or at least the high point of an acute consciousness of crisis in the West. The famous report to the Trilateral Commission claimed that European countries might be in the process of becoming ‘ungovernable’: the oil shock of 1973 had brought the trente glorieuses of unprecedented growth and social peace to a definitive end; the hitherto unknown phenomenon of stagflation – combining high unemployment and runaway inflation – seemed there to stay. In fact, the conservative German philosopher Robert Spaemann claimed that the oil shock was, from the point of view of intellectual history, the most important event since the Second World War. Domestic and international terrorism, from Right and Left, were on the rise; and, not least, the high levels of social mobilisation and political contestation that had begun in the late 1960s continued unabated.
The 1968 phenomenon had not in any narrow sense ‘caused’ large-scale social and cultural transformations, but ‘1968’ became shorthand for them. Because changes there were: a new quasi-libertarian language of subjectivity – foreshadowing the ‘me decade’ – and a new politics of individual life-styles. All over Europe, the traditional family came under attack – in some countries, such as Italy, for the first time. Students, the sons and daughters of the middle classes, who had been on the Right for most of the twentieth century (and highly active in the promotion of fascism in the 1920s and 1930s), all of a sudden were to be found on the Left.
How has memory - collective and individual - influenced European politics after the Second World War and after 1989 in particular? How has the past been used in domestic struggles for power, and how have 'historical lessons' been applied in foreign policy? While there is now a burgeoning field of social and cultural memory studies, mostly focused on commemorations and monuments, this volume is the first to examine the connection between memory and politics directly. It investigates how memory is officially recast, personally reworked and often violently re-instilled after wars, and, above all, the ways memory shapes present power constellations. The chapters combine theoretical innovation in their approach to the study of memory with deeply historical, empirically based case studies of major European countries. The volume concludes with reflections on the ethics of memory, and the politics of truth, justice and forgetting after 1945 and 1989.
Not ideas, but material interests, directly govern men's conduct. Yet very frequently the ‘world images’ that have been created by ‘ideas’ have, like switchmen, determined the tracks along which action has been pushed by the dynamic of interest.
Today Europe rummages through drawers of memories, particularly those which contain the traumatic files of the First World War, the Second World War, fascism and communism.
The best that can be achieved is to know precisely what [the past] was, and to endure this knowledge, and then to wait and see what comes of knowing and enduring.
Memory matters. It matters for the simple reason that memory is an anthropological given, since ‘all consciousness is mediated through it’. However, stressing this fact at the current historical juncture risks invoking a cliché, since ‘memory’, both individual and collective, lies at the intersection of so many of our current concerns and organises many of our current projects. As Ian Hacking has pointed out, memory has become ‘a powerful tool in quests for understanding, justice and knowledge’. Yet, for all the present obsession with ‘memory thinking’ (Hacking), there have been almost no studies of the nexus between memory and political power, especially if one defines politics rather narrowly as the output of political institutions.
We report an unusual case of bulimia nervosa with bilateral swelling of parotid and submandibular glands as the only symptom of the underlying behavioural disorder. Histologically, sialadenosis was diagnosed in a parotid biopsy. The parotomegaly in bulimia may be a diagnostic primer as these patients often deny their eating disorder. B-scan ultrasonography is an important diagnostic tool to assess the nature of the parotid enlargement. Hyperamylasaemia occurs commonly in bulimic patients and may help to confirm the diagnosis. All patients with suspected bulimia should have a thorough medical history and physical examination to rule out other aetiologies of asymptomatic parotid swelling. As the enlargement is usually transient surgical intervention is only rarely required.
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