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Translational neuroscience is at the heart of clinical advancement in the fields of psychiatry, neurology and neurodevelopmental disorders. Written and edited by leading scientists and clinicians, this is a comprehensive and authoritative analysis of this emerging strategy for developing more effective treatments for brain disorders. Introductory chapters bring together perspectives from both academia and industry, while subsequent sections focus on disease groups, including bipolar disorder and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse, autism, Alzheimer's disease, pain, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis. Each section includes topical introductory and summary chapters, providing an overview and synthesis of the field. Translational Neuroscience: Applications in Psychiatry, Neurology, and Neurodevelopmental Disorders is an important text for clinicians, scientists and students in academic settings, government agencies and industry, as well as those working in the fields of public health and the behavioural sciences.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the USA. Although PD is traditionally recognized by its motor symptoms, refinement of our clinical and pathological tools has led to increasing recognition that PD also causes significant nonmotor deficits. Three main treatment strategies are currently used to provide motor symptom relief in patients with early PD. These strategies include using dopamine agonists as monotherapy, long lasting dopamine therapy, and nondopaminergic agents. The mortality rate of PD is about three times higher than the mortality rate in the normal age-matched population before the introduction of l-dopa treatment. To accelerate the development of novel PD therapies, it is essential to identify reliable biomarkers for PD. Lastly, equipped with new understanding of the molecular basis of PD, efforts are now targeted toward overcoming the major obstacles to developing an effective neuroprotective therapy for PD, including accurate animal models of PD.
The fact that risk genes for schizophrenia are salient for brain development or that fetal brain insults mimic the cortical and behavioral pathology of schizophrenia has led to a certain degree of pessimism that these deficits could be ameliorated in the mature brain. Animal models of disorders like schizophrenia that are manifest primarily by cognitive symptoms such as disorganized thinking and hallucinations are based on rather tenuous behavioral inferences such as hyperactivity and stereotypic behavior and are equivalent to psychosis because it is reduced by antipsychotic drugs. Although it has long been known that schizophrenia is associated with loss of cortical volume and increased size of the lateral ventricles, the pathology of the mood disorders was thought to be primarily functional. Biogenic amine neurotransmitters were the major focus of translational research, given their role in mediating the therapeutic effects of antipsychotic and antidepressant medications.
We are developing modular arrays of CdZnTe radiation detectors for high-resolution nuclear medicine imaging. Each detector is delineated into a 64×64 array of pixels; the pixel pitch is 380 jim. Each pixel is connected to a corresponding pad on a multiplexer readout circuit. The imaging system is controlled by a personal computer. We obtained images of standard nuclear medicine phantoms in which the spatial resolution of approximately 1.5 mm was limited by the collimator that was used. Significant improvements in spatial resolution should be possible with different collimator designs. These results are promising for high-resolution nuclear medicine imaging.