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To assess the quantity and focus of recent empirical research regarding the effect of micronutrient supplementation on live birth outcomes in low-risk pregnancies from high-income countries.
A systematic quantitative literature review.
Low-risk pregnancies in World Bank-classified high-income countries, 2019.
Using carefully selected search criteria, a total of 2475 publications were identified, of which seventeen papers met the inclusion criteria for this review. Data contributing to nine of the studies were sourced from four cohorts; research originated from ten countries. These cohorts exhibited a large number of participants, stable data and a low probability of bias. The most recent empirical data offered by these studies was 2011; the most historical was 1980. In total, fifty-five categorical outcome/supplement combinations were examined; 67·3 % reported no evidence of micronutrient supplementation influencing selected outcomes.
A coordinated, cohesive and uniform empirical approach to future studies is required to determine what constitutes appropriate, effective and safe micronutrient supplementation in contemporary cohorts from high-income countries, and how this might influence pregnancy outcomes.
This study examined the relationship between patient performance on multiple memory measures and regional brain volumes using an FDA-cleared quantitative volumetric analysis program – Neuroreader™.
Ninety-two patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by a clinical neuropsychologist completed cognitive evaluations and underwent MR Neuroreader™ within 1 year of testing. Select brain regions were correlated with three widely used memory tests. Regression analyses were conducted to determine if using more than one memory measures would better predict hippocampal z-scores and to explore the added value of recognition memory to prediction models.
Memory performances were most strongly correlated with hippocampal volumes than other brain regions. After controlling for encoding/Immediate Recall standard scores, statistically significant correlations emerged between Delayed Recall and hippocampal volumes (rs ranging from .348 to .490). Regression analysis revealed that evaluating memory performance across multiple memory measures is a better predictor of hippocampal volume than individual memory performances. Recognition memory did not add further predictive utility to regression analyses.
This study provides support for use of MR Neuroreader™ hippocampal volumes as a clinically informative biomarker associated with memory performance, which is a critical diagnostic feature of MCI phenotype.
The Genomics Used to Improve DEpresssion Decisions (GUIDED) trial assessed outcomes associated with combinatorial pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Analyses used the 17-item Hamilton Depression (HAM-D17) rating scale; however, studies demonstrate that the abbreviated, core depression symptom-focused, HAM-D6 rating scale may have greater sensitivity toward detecting differences between treatment and placebo. However, the sensitivity of HAM-D6 has not been tested for two active treatment arms. Here, we evaluated the sensitivity of the HAM-D6 scale, relative to the HAM-D17 scale, when assessing outcomes for actively treated patients in the GUIDED trial.
Outpatients (N=1,298) diagnosed with MDD and an inadequate treatment response to >1 psychotropic medication were randomized into treatment as usual (TAU) or combinatorial PGx-guided (guided-care) arms. Combinatorial PGx testing was performed on all patients, though test reports were only available to the guided-care arm. All patients and raters were blinded to study arm until after week 8. Medications on the combinatorial PGx test report were categorized based on the level of predicted gene-drug interactions: ‘use as directed’, ‘moderate gene-drug interactions’, or ‘significant gene-drug interactions.’ Patient outcomes were assessed by arm at week 8 using HAM-D6 and HAM-D17 rating scales, including symptom improvement (percent change in scale), response (≥50% decrease in scale), and remission (HAM-D6 ≤4 and HAM-D17 ≤7).
At week 8, the guided-care arm demonstrated statistically significant symptom improvement over TAU using HAM-D6 scale (Δ=4.4%, p=0.023), but not using the HAM-D17 scale (Δ=3.2%, p=0.069). The response rate increased significantly for guided-care compared with TAU using both HAM-D6 (Δ=7.0%, p=0.004) and HAM-D17 (Δ=6.3%, p=0.007). Remission rates were also significantly greater for guided-care versus TAU using both scales (HAM-D6 Δ=4.6%, p=0.031; HAM-D17 Δ=5.5%, p=0.005). Patients taking medication(s) predicted to have gene-drug interactions at baseline showed further increased benefit over TAU at week 8 using HAM-D6 for symptom improvement (Δ=7.3%, p=0.004) response (Δ=10.0%, p=0.001) and remission (Δ=7.9%, p=0.005). Comparatively, the magnitude of the differences in outcomes between arms at week 8 was lower using HAM-D17 (symptom improvement Δ=5.0%, p=0.029; response Δ=8.0%, p=0.008; remission Δ=7.5%, p=0.003).
Combinatorial PGx-guided care achieved significantly better patient outcomes compared with TAU when assessed using the HAM-D6 scale. These findings suggest that the HAM-D6 scale is better suited than is the HAM-D17 for evaluating change in randomized, controlled trials comparing active treatment arms.
This paper synthesises the data and results of the Konya Regional Archaeological Survey Project (2016–2020) in order to address the earliest evidence for cities and states on the Konya and Karaman plains, central Turkey. A nested and integrative approach is developed that draws on a wide range of spatially extensive datasets to outline meaningful trends in settlement, water management and regional defensive systems during the Bronze and Iron Ages. The significance of the regional centre of Türkmen-Karahöyük for a reconstruction of early state polities between the 13th and eighth centuries BCE is addressed. In light of this regional analysis, it is tentatively suggested that, during the Late Bronze Age, Türkmen-Karahöyük was the location of the city of Tarḫuntašša, briefly the Hittite capital during the reign of Muwatalli II. More assuredly, based on the analysis of the newly discovered Middle Iron Age TÜRKMEN-KARAHÖYÜK 1 inscription, it is proposed that Türkmen-Karahöyük was the seat of a kingdom during the eighth century BCE that likely encompassed the Konya and Karaman plains.
Objectives: To describe multivariate base rates (MBRs) of low scores and reliable change (decline) scores on Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) in college athletes at baseline, as well as to assess MBR differences among demographic and medical history subpopulations. Methods: Data were reported on 15,909 participants (46.5% female) from the NCAA/DoD CARE Consortium. MBRs of ImPACT composite scores were derived using published CARE normative data and reliability metrics. MBRs of sex-corrected low scores were reported at <25th percentile (Low Average), <10th percentile (Borderline), and ≤2nd percentile (Impaired). MBRs of reliable decline scores were reported at the 75%, 90%, 95%, and 99% confidence intervals. We analyzed subgroups by sex, race, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and/or learning disability (ADHD/LD), anxiety/depression, and concussion history using chi-square analyses. Results: Base rates of low scores and reliable decline scores on individual composites approximated the normative distribution. Athletes obtained ≥1 low score with frequencies of 63.4% (Low Average), 32.0% (Borderline), and 9.1% (Impaired). Athletes obtained ≥1 reliable decline score with frequencies of 66.8%, 32.2%, 18%, and 3.8%, respectively. Comparatively few athletes had low scores or reliable decline on ≥2 composite scores. Black/African American athletes and athletes with ADHD/LD had higher rates of low scores, while greater concussion history was associated with lower MBRs (p < .01). MBRs of reliable decline were not associated with demographic or medical factors. Conclusions: Clinical interpretation of low scores and reliable decline on ImPACT depends on the strictness of the low score cutoff, the reliable change criterion, and the number of scores exceeding these cutoffs. Race and ADHD influence the frequency of low scores at all cutoffs cross-sectionally.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this research was to assess the clinical impact of simulation-based team leadership training on team leadership effectiveness and patient care during actual trauma resuscitations. This translational work addresses an important gap in simulation research and medical education research. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Eligible trauma team leaders were randomized to the intervention (4-hour simulation-based leadership training) or control (standard training) condition. Subject-led actual trauma patient resuscitations were video recorded and coded for leadership behaviors (primary outcome) and patient care (secondary outcome) using novel leadership and trauma patient care metrics. Patient outcomes for trauma resuscitations were obtained through the Harborview Medical Center Trauma Registry and analyzed descriptively. A one-way ANCOVA analysis was conducted to test the effectiveness of our training intervention versus a control group for each outcome (leadership effectiveness and patient care) while accounting for pre-training performance, injury severity score, postgraduate training year, and days since training occurred. Association between leadership effectiveness and patient care was evaluated using random coefficient modeling. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Sixty team leaders, 30 in each condition, completed the study. There was a significant difference in post-training leadership effectiveness [F(1,54)=30.19, p<.001, η2=.36] between the experimental and control conditions. There was no direct impact of training on patient care [F(1,54)=1.0, p=0.33, η2=.02]; however, leadership effectiveness mediated an indirect effect of training on patient care. Across all trauma resuscitations team leader effectiveness correlated with patient care (p<0.05) as predicted by team leadership conceptual models. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This work represents a critical step in advancing translational simulation-based research (TSR). While there are several examples of high quality translational research programs, they primarily focus on procedural tasks and do not evaluate highly complex skills such as leadership. Complex skills present significant measurement challenges because individuals and processes are interrelated, with multiple components and emergent nature of tasks and related behaviors. We provide evidence that simulation-based training of a complex skill (team leadership behavior) transfers to a complex clinical setting (emergency department) with highly variable clinical tasks (trauma resuscitations). Our novel team leadership training significantly improved overall leadership performance and partially mediated the positive effect between leadership and patient care. This represents the first rigorous, randomized, controlled trial of a leadership or teamwork-focused training that systematically evaluates the impact on process (leadership) and performance (patient care).
Neuropsychological dysfunction is a well-established finding in individuals with bipolar disorder type I (BP-I), even during euthymic periods; however, it is less clear whether this also pertains to bipolar disorder type II (BP-II) or those with subthreshold states (SBP; subthreshold bipolar disorder), such as bipolar not otherwise specified (BP-NOS). Herein, we compare the literature regarding neuropsychological performance in BP-II vs BP-I to determine the extent of relative impairment, and we present and review all related studies on cognition in SBP. After systematically searching PubMed, Medline, PsycINFO, and The Cochrane Library, we found 17 papers that comprise all the published studies relevant for this review. The areas that are consistently found to be impaired in BP are executive function, verbal memory, visual spatial working memory, and attention. More studies than not show no significant difference between BP-I and BP-II, particularly in euthymic samples. Preliminary evidence suggests that patients experiencing major depressive episodes who also meet criteria for SBP show similar profiles to BP-II; however, these results pertain only to a depressed sample. SBP were found to perform significantly better than both MDD and healthy controls in a euthymic sample. A consensus on mood state, patient selection, and neuropsychological testing needs to be agreed on for future research. Furthermore, no studies have used the most recent DSM-5 criteria for SBP; future studies should address this. Finally, the underlying bases of cognitive dysfunction in these diagnostic groups need to be further investigated. We suggest recommendations on all of the above current research challenges.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disease burden worldwide, with lifetime prevalence in the United States of 17%. Here we present the results of the first prospective, large-scale, patient- and rater-blind, randomized controlled trial evaluating the clinical importance of achieving congruence between combinatorial pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing and medication selection for MDD.
1,167 outpatients diagnosed with MDD and an inadequate response to ≥1 psychotropic medications were enrolled and randomized 1:1 to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) arm or PGx-guided care arm. Combinatorial PGx testing categorized medications in three groups based on the level of gene-drug interactions: use as directed, use with caution, or use with increased caution and more frequent monitoring. Patient assessments were performed at weeks 0 (baseline), 4, 8, 12 and 24. Patients, site raters, and central raters were blinded in both arms until after week 8. In the guided-care arm, physicians had access to the combinatorial PGx test result to guide medication selection. Primary outcomes utilized the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) and included symptom improvement (percent change in HAM-D17 from baseline), response (50% decrease in HAM-D17 from baseline), and remission (HAM-D17<7) at the fully blinded week 8 time point. The durability of patient outcomes was assessed at week 24. Medications were considered congruent with PGx test results if they were in the ‘use as directed’ or ‘use with caution’ report categories while medications in the ‘use with increased caution and more frequent monitoring’ were considered incongruent. Patients who started on incongruent medications were analyzed separately according to whether they changed to congruent medications by week8.
At week 8, symptom improvement for individuals in the guided-care arm was not significantly different than TAU (27.2% versus 24.4%, p=0.11). However, individuals in the guided-care arm were more likely than those in TAU to achieve remission (15% versus 10%; p<0.01) and response (26% versus 20%; p=0.01). Remission rates, response rates, and symptom reductions continued to improve in the guided-treatment arm until the 24week time point. Congruent prescribing increased to 91% in the guided-care arm by week 8. Among patients who were taking one or more incongruent medication at baseline, those who changed to congruent medications by week 8 demonstrated significantly greater symptom improvement (p<0.01), response (p=0.04), and remission rates (p<0.01) compared to those who persisted on incongruent medications.
Combinatorial PGx testing improves short- and long-term response and remission rates for MDD compared to standard of care. In addition, prescribing congruency with PGx-guided medication recommendations is important for achieving symptom improvement, response, and remission for MDD patients.
Funding Acknowledgements: This study was supported by Assurex Health, Inc.
Depression and cognitive impairment are highly prevalent in type 2 diabetes (T2D), yet little is known about how their relationship varies by sex. We examined this question in a large T2D sample (N = 897) of non-demented elderly (≥ 65) participating in the Israel Diabetes and Cognitive Decline (IDCD) Study. Cognition was evaluated by a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and depressive symptoms were assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The results showed that in all but the executive function domain, the association of depressive symptoms with poorer cognitive function was stronger in women than men, with a significant interaction for language/semantic categorization and missed significance for episodic memory. When defining clinical depression as GDS of ≥6, women with depression had significantly poorer language/semantic categorization, episodic memory, and overall cognitive function. Inclusion of antidepressants in the model did not alter substantively the associations. Our results suggest that depressed T2D women may have poorer cognitive performance, highlighting the significance of sex-specific personalized management of depression in elderly diabetics.
The USA delegation to the July 1919 International Research Council meeting in Brussels included Joel Stebbins, then professor of astronomy and observatory director at the University of Illinois, as secretary of the executive committee appointed by the National Research Council. Stebbins, an avid photographer, documented the travels of their party as the American astronomers attended the meeting and later toured devastated towns, scarred countryside, and battlefields only recently abandoned. Published reports of the meeting afterward attest to the impression left on the American visitors, and the photographs by Stebbins give us a glimpse through their own eyes. Selected photographs, recently discovered in the University of Wisconsin Archives and never before publicly seen, will be presented along with some commentary on their significance for the International Astronomical Union, which took shape at that 1919 meeting.
Trauma induced coagulopathy is a disorder of the coagulation pathway that occurs following major trauma. “Code red trauma” require massive hemorrhage protocol activation. The aim was to qualitatively establish the reasons TEG is not currently utilized and the ongoing practicalities in performing a TEG sample for trauma-related massive hemorrhage.
A pilot study was performed using a TEG6s machine within one central London Major Trauma Centre’s resuscitation department. Staff were asked to run a TEG sample on any “code red” patient who attended during the trial. Staff were given questionnaires both before and after the trial to assess the knowledge around TEG.
A TEG sample was performed in 75% of the sixteen “code red traumas,” with one sample being unsuccessful. Only one patient had their blood component management altered due to the TEG result with only 50% of consultants and registrars surveyed feeling confident in interpreting TEG results.
TEG6s samples can be run within the resuscitation department in a “code red trauma.” However, there is a significant lack of knowledge relating to TEG within the emergency department which is likely to hinder its impact on personalized blood component management. More research is required in how to provide appropriate education in a busy setting to enable TEG to be utilized appropriately.
Electron and proton microprobes, along with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis were used to study the microstructure of the contemporary Al–Cu–Li alloy AA2099-T8. In electron probe microanalysis, wavelength and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry were used in parallel with soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) to characterize the microstructure of AA2099-T8. The electron microprobe was able to identify five unique compositions for constituent intermetallic (IM) particles containing combinations of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. A sixth IM type was found to be rich in Ti and B (suggesting TiB2), and a seventh IM type contained Si. EBSD patterns for the five constituent IM particles containing Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn indicated that they were isomorphous with four phases in the 2xxx series aluminium alloys including Al6(Fe, Mn), Al13(Fe, Mn)4 (two slightly different compositions), Al37Cu2Fe12 and Al7Cu2Fe. SXES revealed that Li was present in some constituent IM particles. Al SXES mapping revealed an Al-enriched (i.e., Cu, Li-depleted) zone in the grain boundary network. From the EBSD analysis, the kernel average misorientation map showed higher levels of localized misorientation in this region, suggesting greater deformation or stored energy. Proton-induced X-ray emission revealed banding of the TiB2 IM particles and Cu inter-band enrichment.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Focal cartilage injuries of the knee joint are common and present a treatment challenge due to minimal intrinsic repair. Cartilage tissue engineering techniques currently used in clinical practice are expensive, cumbersome, and often ineffective in patients with mechanical or medical comorbidities. To address these issues, we developed an acellular nanofibrous scaffold with encapsulated growth factors designed to enhanced articular cartilage repair. Our goal is to evaluate this technology in vitro and pilot a large animal model for eventual translation into human subjects. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Hyaluronic acid (HA, 65 kDa) will be methacrylated (~40% modification, MeHA) and conjugated with cell-adhesive (RGD) groups. A solution of 4% wt/vol MeHA, 2% wt/vol polyethylene oxide (900 kDa), 0.05% wt/vol Irgacure 2959, and 0.005% wt/vol stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and/or transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3) will be prepared in ddH2O. The solution will be electrospun onto a rotating mandrel to achieve a dry scaffold thickness of 0.5 mm. The scaffold matt will be UV cross-linked and 5 mm-diameter samples will be cut out. Four groups of scaffolds will be prepared: MeHA, MeHA+SDF, MeHA+TGF, MeHA+SDF+TGF. All groups will be evaluated for fiber diameter, swell thickness, equilibrium compressive modulus, degradation rate, and growth factor release rate over 4 weeks (n=10). Scaffolds will also be seeded with juvenile porcine MSCs (5×104) in 200 μL of medium incubated for 24 hours. Seeded scaffolds will be evaluated for equilibrium compressive modulus, cell infiltration, and chondrogenesis at 4 and 8 weeks (n=10). Scaffolds will then be evaluated in a juvenile Yucatan minipig cartilage defect model. In total, 6 animals will undergo bilateral knee surgery to create four 4 mm-diameter full-thickness cartilage defects in each trochlear grove. All defects will receive microfracture to release marrow elements. Each knee will receive 2 scaffolds of the same group (replicates) with paired microfracture controls, resulting in a sample size of 3. Animals will be sacrificed at 12 weeks and defects will be evaluated via non-destructive indentation testing for mechanical properties, microCT for defect fill and subchondral bone morphology, and histology for ICRS II Visual Histological Assessment Scoring. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our preliminary studies have shown reliable replication of electrospun MeHA scaffolds. We anticipate cross-linking density to correlate positively with compressive modulus, and negatively with swell thickness, degradation rate, and growth factor release rate. We anticipate the addition of SDF-1α and TGF-β3 to increase cell infiltration and chondrogenesis, respectively, within seeded scaffolds. Similarly, we expect minipig defects treated with growth factor-releasing scaffolds to show greater mechanical properties, defect fill, and ICRS II score compared with MeHA scaffolds without growth factor. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This study has the potential to show how an HA-based cell-free scaffold can be augmented with 2 growth factors that act synergistically to improve cartilage repair in a large animal model. This technology would improve upon the cell-free scaffolds already used clinically for autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis and is directly translatable.
Controversy surrounds the diagnosis and prevalence of paediatric bipolar disorder, with estimates varying considerably between countries.
To determine the international hospital discharge rates for paediatric bipolar disorder compared with all other psychiatric diagnoses.
We used national data-sets from 2000 to 2010 from England, Australia, New Zealand, the USA and Germany.
For those aged under 20 years, the discharge rates for paediatric bipolar disorder per 100 000 population were: USA 95.6, Australia 11.7, New Zealand 6.3, Germany 1.5 and England 0.9. The most marked divergence in discharge rates was in 5- to 9-year-olds: USA 27, New Zealand 0.22, Australia 0.14, Germany 0.03 and England 0.00.
The disparity between US and other discharge rates for paediatric bipolar disorder is markedly greater than the variation for child psychiatric discharge rates overall, and for adult rates of bipolar disorder. This suggests there may be differing diagnostic practices for paediatric bipolar disorder in the USA.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To establish a state-wide research registry of diverse participants. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We garnered broad institutional and community support by involving TRI’s Community Engagement team, its Community Advisory Board (CAB), and 3 UAMS patient CABs in selecting Web site content, images, and colors. Using this feedback, the TRI Recruitment Unit (RU), in conjunction with UAMS Communications and the Center for Health Literacy, developed the materials and crafted comprehensive communication and recruitment strategies. The UAMS Center for Pacific Islander Health, Hispanic faculty, and CAB members translated materials. UAMS IT programmed the user-friendly site to allow registration from smartphones and i-Pads and linked to UAMS patient electronic health messages. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The RU committee implemented successful innovative strategies, including recruiting at the Arkansas State Fair and ballgames, attended by people of all races, ages, and socio-economic levels. Using i-Pads at the sites, recruitment took <5 minutes/registrant. Within 8 months, >2400 participants from across Arkansas had joined the registry: 14% African-Americans, 8% Pacific Islanders, 5% Hispanic, and 3% Native American. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Involving CAB multidisciplinary input to design and implement recruitment materials was highly successful. Despite challenges of recruiting under-represented groups, the registry includes 30% minorities. By tracking registrants’ demographics with Lime Survey software, the RU will prioritize future recruitment events to maximize diversity of registrants.
To outline the development of a smartphone-based tool to collect thrice-repeated 24 h dietary recall data in rural Nepal, and to describe energy intakes, common errors and researchers’ experiences using the tool.
We designed a novel tool to collect multi-pass 24 h dietary recalls in rural Nepal by combining the use of a CommCare questionnaire on smartphones, a paper form, a QR (quick response)-coded list of foods and a photographic atlas of portion sizes. Twenty interviewers collected dietary data on three non-consecutive days per respondent, with three respondents per household. Intakes were converted into nutrients using databases on nutritional composition of foods, recipes and portion sizes.
Dhanusha and Mahottari districts, Nepal.
Pregnant women, their mothers-in-law and male household heads. Energy intakes assessed in 150 households; data corrections and our experiences reported from 805 households and 6765 individual recalls.
Dietary intake estimates gave plausible values, with male household heads appearing to have higher energy intakes (median (25th–75th centile): 12 079 (9293–14 108) kJ/d) than female members (8979 (7234–11 042) kJ/d for pregnant women). Manual editing of data was required when interviewers mistook portions for food codes and for coding items not on the food list. Smartphones enabled quick monitoring of data and interviewer performance, but we initially faced technical challenges with CommCare forms crashing.
With sufficient time dedicated to development and pre-testing, this novel smartphone-based tool provides a useful method to collect data. Future work is needed to further validate this tool and adapt it for other contexts.