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While negative affect reliably predicts binge eating, it is unknown how this association may decrease or ‘de-couple’ during treatment for binge eating disorder (BED), whether such change is greater in treatments targeting emotion regulation, or how such change predicts outcome. This study utilized multi-wave ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to assess changes in the momentary association between negative affect and subsequent binge-eating symptoms during Integrative Cognitive Affective Therapy (ICAT-BED) and Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help (CBTgsh). It was predicted that there would be stronger de-coupling effects in ICAT-BED compared to CBTgsh given the focus on emotion regulation skills in ICAT-BED and that greater de-coupling would predict outcomes.
Adults with BED were randomized to ICAT-BED or CBTgsh and completed 1-week EMA protocols and the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) at pre-treatment, end-of-treatment, and 6-month follow-up (final N = 78). De-coupling was operationalized as a change in momentary associations between negative affect and binge-eating symptoms from pre-treatment to end-of-treatment.
There was a significant de-coupling effect at follow-up but not end-of-treatment, and de-coupling did not differ between ICAT-BED and CBTgsh. Less de-coupling was associated with higher end-of-treatment EDE global scores at end-of-treatment and higher binge frequency at follow-up.
Both ICAT-BED and CBTgsh were associated with de-coupling of momentary negative affect and binge-eating symptoms, which in turn relate to cognitive and behavioral treatment outcomes. Future research is warranted to identify differential mechanisms of change across ICAT-BED and CBTgsh. Results also highlight the importance of developing momentary interventions to more effectively de-couple negative affect and binge eating.
A Digital Twin as a virtual representation of a physical system is becoming a key technology. While potential benefits are evident, there is no approach in literature or practice comprehensively supporting its introduction. In an industrial case study, a generic procedure model for the conception and implementation of a Digital Twin was developed. The relations between use cases, usage data, and virtual models resulted in a target concept as well as requirements for the implementation. Thereby, companies can access the potentials of a Digital Twin taking into account their specific situation.
Over the last two decades, a concept called Digital Twin has evolved rapidly. Yet, there is no unified definition of the term. Based on a literature study and an industrial case study, an overarching definition of Digital twins is presented. Three characteristics were identified – representation of a physical system, bidirectional data exchange, and the connection along the entire lifecycle. Further, three sub-concepts are presented, namely: Engineering Twin, Production Twin, and Operation Twin. The presented paper thus formulates a consistent and detailed definition of Digital Twins.
Driving is a daily activity for most people in developed countries and is important in maintaining independence. Bipolar patients may have an impaired driving behavior because of the pathology itself, with psychomotor and cognitive disturbances. Additionally, adverse effects of pharmacologic treatment may be detrimental.
24 remitted bipolar outpatients diagnosed according to ICD-10 criteria were enrolled in the study, receiving either lithium (n = 12) or lamotrigine (n = 12). Participants were investigated under steady state plasma level conditions. According to the German Guidelines for road and traffic safety data were collected with the Wiener Testsystem (WTS) measuring visual perception, reactivity, stress tolerance, concentration and vigilance.
Psychopathologic symptoms were rated with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Young Mania Rating Scale - Clinician rated (YMRS-C).
About 40% of patients were without clinically relevant psychomotor disturbances. In 40% of cases mild to moderate impairments could be seen, and 20% of the patients were considered as severely impaired. Data show that patients under lamotrigine had an altogether better test performance than patients treated with lithium. Especially in visual perception and stress tolerance differences were most pronounced.
About 20% of remitted bipolar outpatients treated with lithium or lamotrigine must be considered unfit to drive. In 40% of the cases it seems justified to counsel patients individually, taking into account compensational factors. Analysis of our data point to an advantage for bipolar patients treated with lamotrigine when compared with lithium. However causal relationships can not be drawn from our data.
Gene × environment (G × E) interactions in eating pathology have been increasingly investigated, however studies have been limited by sample size due to the difficulty of obtaining genetic data.
To synthesize existing G × E research in the eating disorders (ED) field and provide a clear picture of the current state of knowledge with analyses of larger samples.
Complete data from seven studies investigating community (n = 1750, 64.5% female) and clinical (n = 426, 100% female) populations, identified via systematic review, were included. Data were combined to perform five analyses: 5-HTTLPR × Traumatic Life Events (0–17 events) to predict ED status (n = 909), 5-HTTLPR × Sexual and Physical Abuse (n = 1097) to predict bulimic symptoms, 5-HTLPR × Depression to predict bulimic symptoms (n = 1256), and 5-HTTLPR × Impulsivity to predict disordered eating (n = 1149).
The low function (s) allele of 5-HTTLPR interacted with number of traumatic life events (P < .01) and sexual and physical abuse (P < .05) to predict increased likelihood of an ED in females but not males (Fig. 1). No other G × E interactions were significant, possibly due to the medium to low compatibility between datasets (Fig. 1).
Early promising results suggest that increased knowledge of G × E interactions could be achieved if studies increased uniformity of measuring ED and environmental variables, allowing for continued collaboration to overcome the restrictions of obtaining genetic samples.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We present ALMA band 7 data of the extreme OH/IR star, OH 26.5+0.6. In addition to lines of CO and its isotopologues, the circumstellar envelope also exhibits a number of emission lines due to metal-containing molecules, e.g., NaCl and KCl. A lack of C18O is expected, but a non-detection of C17O is puzzling given the strengths of H217O in Herschel spectra of the star. However, a line associated with Si17O is detected. We also report a tentative detection of a gas-phase emission line of MgS. The ALMA spectrum of this object reveals intriguing features which may be used to investigate chemical processes and dust formation during a high mass-loss phase.
We introduce the newly developed database of circumstellar maser sources. Until now, the compilations comprehensively including the three major maser species in evolved stars (i.e., SiO, H2O, OH) has been practically limited only to the Benson’s catalog (Benson et al. 1990), which was published more than a quarter of a century ago. For OH masers alone, there exists the University of Hamburg (UH) database, but there is no updated compilation work for H2O and SiO masers. In order to utilize the information of masers in actual studies, it is highly desirable to have a database containing all the three masers. We are currently constructing a database covering SiO, H2O and OH masers. This database consists of a web-service, which accesses compiled maser observations in available archives and combines them with the data we newly collected and IR databases. The archives currently used are the OH maser archive from Engels & Bunzel (2015), and H2O and SiO archives, which are currently under construction. So far, the information of about 27,000 observations (about 10,000 objects) has been implemented. We also have a plan to extend the database by including higher transitions and other types of objects, such as young stellar objects, in future. In this paper, we briefly summarize, (1) outline of the data collected, and (2) future development plans of the eDAMS system. The URL of the database is as follows: http://maserdb.ins.urfu.ru/
In many regions of the world, the cultivation of landraces is still common, in particular in centres of crop diversity. Significant effort has been put into ex situ conservation of landraces but limited data exist on the changes in genetic diversity that occur over time in farmers’ fields. We assessed temporal changes in barley landrace diversity in Jordan using seed samples collected in 1981 and 2012 from the same locations. We did not observe significant changes in the amount of genetic diversity, but samples collected in 2012 were more homogenous and less locally distinct. In two sites, we observed replacement of the old material. We observed a change in phenotype, and phenotypes were found to be more homogeneous among sites in 2012. Climate changed significantly over the study period, becoming hotter and dryer, but we did not identify any correlation between the changes in climate and genetic and phenotypic variations. While the amount of genetic diversity in terms of allelic richness and number of multi-locus genotypes has been maintained, local distinctiveness among landrace barley populations in Jordan was reduced.
Stereotypies are used as indicators of poor animal welfare and it is, therefore, important to understand underlying factors mediating their development. In calves, two oral stereotypies, that is, tongue playing and object manipulation, result mostly from insufficient structure in the diet. Three hypotheses were studied: (1) oral stereotypies in calves are one of two alternative strategies, the alternative being hypo-activity; (2) stereotyping and non-stereotyping calves differ in terms of cortisol secretion; (3) oral stereotypy development in calves rests on a gene by environment interaction. Eight-week-old bull calves (n=48) were assigned to one of four solid feed allowances (0, 9, 18 or 27 g dry matter/kg metabolic weight per day) with the following composition: 50% concentrate, 25% maize silage and 25% straw on dry matter basis. The calves received milk replacer in buckets, the provision of which was adjusted to achieve equal growth rates. At 14 to 18 weeks of age, calves were exposed to a challenge, that is, tethering inside cages. Oral stereotypies and inactivity were recorded in the home pens in the 4 weeks before the challenge using instantaneous scan sampling. Salivary cortisol levels were measured at −120, +40, +80, +120 min and +48 h relative to the challenge. Individual differences in behaviour were recorded in the first 30 min after challenge implementation using focal animal sampling and continuous recording, and these elements were entered into a principal component (PC) analysis to extract PCs. Regression analyses were performed to find relationships between stereotypies and inactivity, stereotypies and cortisol, and stereotypies and PCs (individual differences, genes) and solid feed (environment). Relationships between PCs and cortisol were also investigated to help with the interpretation of PCs. Hypotheses 1 and 2 were rejected. Hypothesis 3, however, was supported: calves with a zero solid feed allowance, that is, in the most barren environment, showed links between stereotypies and two of the PCs. Calves that displayed high levels of idle and rapid locomotion and low levels of oral contact with the cage during the challenge also displayed high levels of object manipulation in the home pens. Calves that displayed low levels of stepping and turning attempts during the challenge also displayed high levels of tongue playing in the home pens. This study corroborates the gene by environment interaction on the development of oral stereotypies in calves.
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated protective effects of breast-feeding on childhood obesity. Differences between human milk and infant milk formula (IMF) in dietary lipid structure may contribute to this effect. In our mouse model, feeding a diet containing large lipid droplets coated with phospholipids (PL) (Nuturis®; PL of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fraction origin) in early life protected against excessive body fat accumulation following a diet challenge in adult life. We now set out to determine the relevance of increased droplet size and/or MFGM lipid droplet coating to the observed anti-obesogenic effects in adult life. From day 16 to 42, male mouse pups were exposed to diets with small (S) or large (L) lipid droplets (0·3 v. 2·9 µm average mode diameter, respectively), either without MFGM or with MFGM coating around the lipid droplet, resulting in four groups: S (control diet), L, Scoating and Lcoating (Nuturis® IMF diet). Mice were subsequently challenged with a Western-style diet until dissection at postnatal day 98. A non-challenged group served as reference (REF). We repeatedly determined body composition between postnatal day 42 and 98. At day 98 plasma and gene expression measurements were performed. Only the Nuturis® IMF diet (Lcoating) in early life containing MFGM-coated large lipid droplets reduced body fat mass to a level comparable with the REF group. These data support the notion that the structural aspects of lipids in human milk, for example, both lipid droplet size as well as the MFGM coating, may contribute to its reported protective effect against obesity in later life.
Echocardiography is the diagnostic test of choice for latent rheumatic heart disease. The utility of echocardiography for large-scale screening is limited by high cost, complex diagnostic protocols, and time to acquire multiple images. We evaluated the performance of a brief hand-held echocardiography protocol and computer-assisted auscultation in detecting latent rheumatic heart disease with or without pathological murmur.
A total of 27 asymptomatic patients with latent rheumatic heart disease based on the World Heart Federation criteria and 66 healthy controls were examined by standard cardiac auscultation to detect pathological murmur. Hand-held echocardiography using a focussed protocol that utilises one view – that is, the parasternal long-axis view – and one measurement – that is, mitral regurgitant jet – and a computer-assisted auscultation utilising an automated decision tool were performed on all patients.
The sensitivity and specificity of computer-assisted auscultation in latent rheumatic heart disease were 4% (95% CI 1.0–20.4%) and 93.7% (95% CI 84.5–98.3%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the focussed hand-held echocardiography protocol for definite rheumatic heart disease were 92.3% (95% CI 63.9–99.8%) and 100%, respectively. The test reliability of hand-held echocardiography was 98.7% for definite and 94.7% for borderline disease, and the adjusted diagnostic odds ratios were 1041 and 263.9 for definite and borderline disease, respectively.
Computer-assisted auscultation has extremely low sensitivity but high specificity for pathological murmur in latent rheumatic heart disease. Focussed hand-held echocardiography has fair sensitivity but high specificity and diagnostic utility for definite or borderline rheumatic heart disease in asymptomatic patients.
The diversity and pluralism of Southeast Asia make it an ideal subject for law and society researchers, but by and large they have not given the region the attention it deserves. In this article, we argue for a more intense and systematic linking of research about Southeast Asia and the field of law and society. We focus on the theme of state and personhood to suggest how some of the central concerns of law and society may be relevant to Southeast Asian peoples and cultures. We illustrate our argument by selecting nine excellent articles by Southeast Asian scholars who do not currently identify their work with the law and society field, and we demonstrate that their research is rich with implications for the field. We welcome in particular the ways in which they have portrayed personhood as an ongoing construction and have highlighted its contingent relationship with the state. Building on these themes, we conclude the article with a plea for a more far-reaching engagement between Southeast Asian studies and law and society research.
The human–animal relationship is an important component of the welfare of farm animals and for this reason animal responsiveness tests to humans are included in on-farm welfare assessment schemes that provide indicators for this. However, apart from the behaviour of stockpersons towards their animals, other factors may also influence animals’ reactivity to humans as observed through behavioural tests, which can add a further layer of complexity to the interpretation of test results. Knowledge of these factors may help a better interpretation of differences from one farm to another in the outcome of human–animal relationship tests, and may provide clues for improving the relationship between animals and humans. The main objective of this study was to identify whether management or environmental factors could influence the outcome of human–animal relationship tests in veal calves. Two tests were performed when calves were aged 14.9 ± 1.6 (SD) weeks in 148 veal farms: the voluntary approach of an unfamiliar human standing at the feeding fence and the reaction towards an unfamiliar human who entered the home pen and tried to touch each calf in a standardised way (Calf Escape Test (CET) – score 0 to 4). Questionnaires were filled in and interviews with the stockpersons were performed in order to obtain information on stockpersons, management, animal and building characteristics. The latency to touch an unfamiliar human at the feeding fence was significantly correlated with the CET scores. Total number of calves on the farm, space allowance, breed, environmental enrichment, stockperson's experience and season of observation influenced the percentage of calves that scored 0 in CET (i.e. calves that could not be approached). Type of milk distribution, type of breed and number of calves per stockperson influenced the percentage of calves that scored 4 in CET (i.e. calves could be touched). For both CET0 and CET4, the level of self-reported contacts by the stockperson (analysed only on the French subset of 36 farms) did not influence the results. This paper concludes that according to the tests conducted on veal calves on commercial farms, factors such as milk distribution method, breed of the calves or the level of experience of stockpersons with veal farming can have an impact on the results of tests focusing on human–animal relationships.
Numerous studies have shown that people adjust their intake directly to that of their eating companions. A potential explanation for this modelling effect is that the eating behaviour of others operates as an external eating cue that stimulates food intake. The present study explored whether this cue-reactive mechanism can account for modelling effects on intake. It was investigated whether attentional bias towards dynamic eating cues and impulsivity would influence the degree of modelling. Participants completed one individual session and one session in which an experimental confederate accompanied them. In the first session, eye movements were recorded as an index of attentional bias to dynamic eating cues. In addition, self-reported impulsivity and response inhibition were assessed. The second session employed a between-participants design with three experimental conditions in which participants were exposed to a same-sex confederate instructed to eat nothing, a low or a large amount of M&Ms. A total of eighty-five young women participated. The participants' self-reported impulsivity determined the occurrence of modelling; only low-impulsive women adjusted their intake to that of their eating companion. Attention towards eating cues and response inhibition, however, did not moderate modelling of food intake. The present study suggests that cue-reactive mechanisms may not underlie modelling of food intake. Instead, the results emphasise the importance of social norms in explaining modelling effects, whereas it is suggested that the degree of impulsivity may play a role in whether or not women adhere to the intake norms set by their eating companion.