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The Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN) is composed by four ground cosmic ray detectors distributed around the Earth: Nagoya (Japan), Hobart (Australia), Sao Martinho da Serra (Brazil) and Kuwait city (Kuwait). The network has operated since March 2006. It has been upgraded a few times, increasing its detection area. Each detector is sensitive to muons produced by the interactions of ~50 GeV Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) with the Earth′s atmosphere. At these energies, GCR are known to be affected by interplanetary disturbances in the vicinity of the earth. Of special interest are the interplanetary counterparts of coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and their driven shocks because they are known to be the main origins of geomagnetic storms. It has been observed that these ICMEs produce changes in the cosmic ray gradient, which can be measured by GMDN observations. In terms of applications for space weather, some attempts have been made to use GMDN for forecasting ICME arrival at the earth with lead times of the order of few hours. Scientific space weather studies benefit the most from the GMDN network. As an example, studies have been able to determine ICME orientation at the earth using cosmic ray gradient. Such determinations are of crucial importance for southward interplanetary magnetic field estimates, as well as ICME rotation.
Analysis of surface and underground detector data from Mawson and Hobart for the period 1982 to 1988 has revealed a number of episodes of enhanced diurnal variation lasting more than 5 days. A preliminary study of these enhancements shows that variations in the rigidity spectrum and in the upper limiting rigidity must be present to explain the phenomenon.
Six solar proton events have been observed by ground level cosmic ray detectors so far during solar cycle 21, a little less than one per year. All of these have been much smaller than the giant events observed in solar cycle 19. As with many other aspects of solar activity, the reason for the differences from cycle to cycle remain unknown.
The calculation of coupling coefficients for muon telescopes has previously used interpolation from a limited set of asymptotic directions of arrival of primary particles. Furthermore, these calculations have not incorporated curvature of the atmosphere and thus diverge from the true response at zenith angles greater than about 75 degrees. The necessary extensions to calculate coupling coefficients at arbitrary zenith angles are given, including an improved method of incorporating the asymptotic directions of the primary particles. It is shown, using this method, that certain coupling coefficients are highly sensitive to small changes in asymptotic directions for some telescope configurations.
The radial density gradient (Gr) of Galactic cosmic rays in the ecliptic plane points outward from the Sun. This indicates an increasing density of cosmic ray particles beyond the Earth’s orbit. Due to this gradient and the direction of the Sun’s interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) above and below the IMF wavy neutral sheet, there exists an anisotropic flow of cosmic ray particles approximately perpendicular to the ecliptic plane (i.e. in the direction parallel to BIMF × Gr). This effect is called the north–south anisotropy (ξNS) and manifests as a diurnal variation in sidereal time in the particle intensity recorded by a cosmic ray detector. By analysing the yearly averaged sidereal diurnal variation recorded by five neutron monitors and six muon telescopes from 1957 to 1990, we have deduced probable values of the average rigidity spectrum and magnitude of ξNS. Furthermore, we have used determined yearly amplitudes of ξNS to infer the magnitude of Gr for particles with rigidities in excess of 10 GV.
The University of Tasmania has been operating muon telescopes since mid-1971 in an underground power station operated by the Hydro-Electric Commission at Poatina in Northern Tasmania. The equipment is located beneath ~ 150 m of rock, corresponding to a total absorption depth of ˜ 365 hg cm-2. The initial pilot experiment was reported (Fenton and Fenton 1972) at the May 1972 meeting of A.S.A., and results from the first two full years of operation were presented to the Hobart meeting of A.S.A. two years later (Fenton and Fenton 1974). We now have complete data for the 5-year period 1972-1976, together with provisional data for 1977.
Although transient decreases in cosmic ray intensity of the type first reported by Forbush (1937) have been observed and studied for more than 40 years using a variety of detectors at many locations, from medium depths underground to those on spacecraft far from Earth, the precise nature of the physical process causing these events is not yet clear (see, for example, McKibben 1981).
The ground level event (GLE) observed on November 22, 1977, is of interest because of the spread of onset times observed by various cosmic ray neutron monitors. Previous reports (Fenton, Fenton and Humble 1978, 1979) have discussed this matter without being able to reach definite conclusions. We have now obtained data from a further seven neutron monitors, and also some from the Imp 8 spacecraft. These data combine to suggest that the event may have been more complex than we initially supposed.
The cosmic ray ground-level enhancement (GLE) of 24 October 1989 was the last of a series of GLEs associated with the same solar active region. Intensity enhancements were observed by at least 31 neutron monitors in the worldwide network, with the largest increase (~200%) observed at South Pole, Antarctica around 20:30 UT. Using a least-squares model fit to all available neutron monitor data, spectra, apparent source directions and particle pitch angle distributions have been derived. The effect of disturbed geomagnetic conditions has also been taken into account.
Solar flares for which protons of relativistic energies reach Earth are rare events compared with the number in which non-relativistic protons are produced. For instance, Shea and Smart (1978) have listed 139 proton events for the interval 1955-69 of which 17 were GLE’s (i.e. “ground level events” detected by the world network of cosmic ray neutron monitors). We have tentatively identified a further 11 GLE’s in the interval 1970-1977, of which 3 were in 1977 in the sunspot cycle which commenced about mid-1976 (cycle 21). Thus the average rate over the past two solar cycles has been a little over one per year.
Ina recent paper, Lockwood et al. (1991) have used IMP spacecraft and Neutron Monitor data to consider the rigidity dependence of three large Forbush Decreases over the energy range 50 MeV to 30 GeV. Some of their conclusions are extrapolated to higher energies.
In an earlier paper (Duldig, 1987a), one of us discussed the need to consider the presence of isotropic intensity waves when determining the Forbush Decrease spectrum at energies up to a few hundred GeV. Lockwood et al.’s conclusions are discussed in the light of these results.
It is now firmly established that a small anisotropy of the galactic cosmic rays exists, observable from Earth as a variation of intensity in sidereal time. The problem now is to determine more clearly the characteristics of the anisotropy and, in particular, its detailed spatial structure and how it depends upon the energy and composition of the cosmic rays. This is a very difficult task and, in the final analysis, may not be fully achievable from Earth-based observations. The purpose of the present paper is to describe briefly an installation now operating in Tasmania to provide further information on the spatial structure of the anisotropy.
We have deduced the yearly averaged value of the solar diurnal variation as observed by a surface muon telescope and three underground muon telescopes over the years 1957 to 1985. This has allowed us to examine the temporal variation in both the latitudinal gradient Gz and the product of the parallel mean free path and the radial gradient of galactic cosmic rays during three consecutive solar cycles. The median rigidities of the primary particles being detected by the telescopes are 50 GV in the case of the surface muon telescope and greater than 150 GV in the case of the underground muon telescopes. We have compared our results with those of a similar study made from observations of the solar diurnal variation by neutron monitors and an ion chamber, which have median rigidities of response between 17 and 70 GV (Bieber and Chen 1991a). The product has a solar magnetic cycle dependence and our values are lower than those observed by neutron monitors, in agreement with the Bieber and Chen observation that reverses after a solar magnetic field reversal, in accordance with drift theories.
Ground level detectors observed several major changes in the primary cosmic-ray flux during November 4960. Large increases, of solar origin, occurred on November 12 and 15, and a smaller one on November 20. The galactic flux in the region of the Earth was severely reduced by a Forbush decrease on November 12, and remained notably depressed until November 25. Considerable magnetic activity was observed throughout the period. Several models have been proposed to account for these observations.
This work presents some observations during the period of the Whole Heliosphere Interval (WHI) of the effects of interplanetary (IP) structures on the near-Earth space using three sets of observations: magnetic field and plasma from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite, ground-based cosmic ray data from the Global Muon Detection Network (GMDN) and geomagnetic indices (Disturbance storm-time, Dst, and auroral electrojet index, AE). Since WHI was near minimum solar activity, high speed streams and corotating interaction regions (CIRs) were the dominant structures observed in the interplanetary space surrounding Earth. Very pronounced geomagnetic effects are shown to be correlated to CIRs, especially because they can cause the so-called High-Intensity Long-Duration Continuous AE Activity (HILDCAAs) - Tsurutani and Gonzalez (1987). At least a few high speed streams can be identified during the period of WHI. The focus here is to characterize these IP structures and their geospace consequences.
We have developed a new numerical technique for simulating dusty-gas flows. Our code incorporates gas hydrodynamics, self-gravity and dust drag to follow the dynamical evolution of a dusty-gas medium. We have incorporated several descriptions for the drag between gas and dust phases and can model flows with submillimetre, centimetre and metre size “dust”. We present calculations run on the APAC1 supercomputer following the evolution of the dust distribution in the pre-solar nebula.
No controlled trial of treatment of generalised social phobia has been conducted in general practice.
To examine the efficacy of sertraline or exposure therapy, administered alone or in combination in this setting.
Study was of a randomised, double-blind design. Patients (n=387) received sertraline 50–150 mg or placebo for 24 weeks. Patients were additionally randomised to exposure therapy or general medical care.
Sertraline-treated patients were significantly more improved than non-sertraline-treated patients (χ2=12.53, P<0.001; odds ratio=0.534; 95% CI 0.347–0.835). No significant difference was observed between exposure— and non-exposure-treated patients (χ2=2.18, P=0.140; odds ratio=0.732; 95% CI 0.475–1.134). In the pairwise comparisons, combined sertraline and exposure (χ2=12.32; P<0.001) and sertraline (χ2=10.13; P=0.002) were significantly superior to placebo.
Sertraline is an effective treatment for generalised social phobia. Combined treatment with sertraline and exposure therapy, conducted by the general practitioner, may enhance the treatment efficacy in primary care.
Many scientific laws are often expressed as relations between two or more physical quantities. In general these laws are obtained in one of two ways. Either the results of experiment are used directly to formulate empirical laws, or existing scientific knowledge is used, often together with mathematics, to arrive at new theories which can then be validated later by experiment. In formulating scientific laws we attempt to find a formula between the symbols representing the physical quantities of interest. Sometimes this is not possible and the relationship has to be expressed in the form of a table of values or a graph, for example.
If two quantities are related so that the value of one of them is uniquely determined when the other is known, then we say that there is a functional relationship between the variables. In these opening chapters we consider the basic mathematical functions which occur in science.
Example 1: loading a steel wire. Table 1.1 shows the results of an experiment to investigate how the length of a piece of mild steel wire changes when weights are attached to it. The unextended length of the wire is 2 m and its mean diameter is 1 mm.
It is clear that l increases with W but the nature of the relationship between the quantities W and l is more easily seen if we plot the points on a graph.