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While there are effective treatments for psychiatric disorders, many individuals with such disorders do not receive treatment and those that do often take years to get into treatment. Information regarding treatment contact failure and delay in Argentina is needed to guide public health policy and planning. Therefore, this study aimed to provide data on prompt treatment contact, lifetime treatment contact, median duration of treatment delays and socio-demographic predictors of treatment contact after the first onset of a mental disorder.
The Argentinean Study of Mental Health Epidemiology (EAESM) is a multistage probability sample representative of adults (aged 18+) living in large urban areas of Argentina. A total of 2116 participants were evaluated with the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess psychiatric diagnosis, treatment contact and delay.
Projections of cases that will make treatment contact by 50 years taken from a survival curve suggest that the majority of individuals with a mood (100%) or anxiety disorder (72.5%) in Argentina whose disorder persist for a sufficient period of time eventually make treatment contact while fewer with a substance disorder do so (41.6%). Timely treatment in the year of onset is rare (2.6% for a substance disorder, 14.6% for an anxiety disorder and 31.3% of those with a mood disorder) with mean delays between 8 years for mood disorders and 21 years for anxiety disorders. Younger cohorts are more likely to make treatment contact than older cohorts, whereas those with earlier ages of disorder onset are least likely to make treatment contact. Those with anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder are more likely to make treatment contact when they have comorbid disorders, whereas those with substance use disorders are less likely.
Argentina needs to implement strategies to get individuals with substance use disorders into treatment, and to reduce treatment delays for all, but particularly to target early detection and treatment among children and adolescents.
Previous work has identified associations between psychotic experiences (PEs) and general medical conditions (GMCs), but their temporal direction remains unclear as does the extent to which they are independent of comorbid mental disorders.
In total, 28 002 adults in 16 countries from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys were assessed for PEs, GMCs and 21 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders. Discrete-time survival analyses were used to estimate the associations between PEs and GMCs with various adjustments.
After adjustment for comorbid mental disorders, temporally prior PEs were significantly associated with subsequent onset of 8/12 GMCs (arthritis, back or neck pain, frequent or severe headache, other chronic pain, heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes and peptic ulcer) with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–1.5] to 1.9 (95% CI 1.4–2.4). In contrast, only three GMCs (frequent or severe headache, other chronic pain and asthma) were significantly associated with subsequent onset of PEs after adjustment for comorbid GMCs and mental disorders, with ORs ranging from 1.5 (95% CI 1.2–1.9) to 1.7 (95% CI 1.2–2.4).
PEs were associated with the subsequent onset of a wide range of GMCs, independent of comorbid mental disorders. There were also associations between some medical conditions (particularly those involving chronic pain) and subsequent PEs. Although these findings will need to be confirmed in prospective studies, clinicians should be aware that psychotic symptoms may be risk markers for a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Whether PEs are causal risk factors will require further research.
Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 13% of women and has a negative impact on mother and infant, hence reliable biological tests for early detection of PPD are essential. We aimed to identify robust predictive biomarkers for PPD using peripheral blood gene expression profiles in a hypothesis-free genome-wide study in a high-risk, longitudinal cohort.
We performed a genome-wide association study in a longitudinal discovery cohort comprising 62 women with psychopathology. Gene expression and hormones were measured in the first and third pregnancy trimesters and early postpartum (201 samples). The replication cohort comprised 24 women with third pregnancy trimester gene expression measures. Gene expression was measured on Illumina-Human HT12 v4 microarrays. Plasma estradiol and estriol were measured. Statistical analysis was performed in R.
We identified 116 transcripts differentially expressed between the PPD and euthymic women during the third trimester that allowed prediction of PPD with an accuracy of 88% in both discovery and replication cohorts. Within these transcripts, significant enrichment of transcripts implicated that estrogen signaling was observed and such enrichment was also evident when analysing published gene expression data predicting PPD from a non-risk cohort. While plasma estrogen levels were not different across groups, women with PPD displayed an increased sensitivity to estrogen signaling, confirming the previously proposed hypothesis of increased sex-steroid sensitivity as a susceptibility factor for PPD.
These results suggest that PPD can be robustly predicted in currently euthymic women as early as the third trimester and these findings have implications for predictive testing of high-risk women and prevention and treatment for PPD.
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