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Contemporary monetary institutions are flawed at a foundational level. The reigning paradigm in monetary policy holds up constrained discretion as the preferred operating framework for central banks. But no matter how smart or well-intentioned are central bankers, discretionary policy contains information and incentive problems that make macroeconomic stability systematically unlikely. Furthermore, central bank discretion implicitly violates the basic jurisprudential norms of liberal democracy. Drawing on a wide body of scholarship, this volume presents a novel argument in favor of embedding monetary institutions into a rule of law framework. The authors argue for general, predictable rules to provide a sturdier foundation for economic growth and prosperity. A rule of law approach to monetary policy would remedy the flaws that resulted in misguided monetary responses to the 2007-8 financial crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the case for true monetary rules is the first step toward creating more stable monetary institutions.
This expansive history of the origins of majority rule in modern representative government charts the emergence of majority voting as a global standard for decision-making in popular assemblies. Majority votes had, of course, been held prior to 1642, but not since antiquity had they been held with any frequency by a popular assembly with responsibility for the fate of a nation. The crucial moment in the global triumph of majority rule was its embrace by the elected assemblies of early modern Britain and its empire. William J. Bulman analyzes its sudden appearance in the English House of Commons and its adoption by the elected assemblies of Britain's Atlantic colonies in the age of the English, Glorious, and American Revolutions. These events made it overwhelmingly likely that the United Kingdom, the United States, and their former dependencies would become and remain fundamentally majoritarian polities. Providing an insightful commentary on the state of democratic governance today, this study sheds light on the nature, promise, and perils of majority rule.
Ultrasonography is a crucial tool in successful assisted reproduction but requires a steady hand and can often be difficult for unconfident clinicians. A comprehensive ultrasound imaging reference, this is an essential guide for trainee clinicians, ultrasonographers, and nurses working in the field of assisted reproductive technology. Providing the reader with an overview of the process and a foundation to direct their ultrasound assessment of each patient, it contains highly practical tips and tricks for obtaining the best images. Heavily illustrated with example images, the role of ultrasound in fertility treatment is explained, as well as how to identify the uterus and ovaries, measure the endometrium, count follicles and recognize pathology. The role of ultrasound in assisted reproduction is covered, including transvaginal oocyte collection, embryo transfer, early pregnancy, miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy. This is an indispensable reference for clinicians new to ultrasound in assisted reproduction.
Liver disease in children is increasing in prevalence, placing a huge burden on healthcare systems and often requiring long-term management. Offering an integrative approach to the science and clinical practice of pediatric hepatology, this is the definitive reference text for improved diagnosis and treatment strategies. In the new edition of this authoritative text, chapters have been thoroughly revised in line with major advances in the field, such as recognizing the increased frequency of fatty liver disease, and how genetic testing has the potential to establish earlier diagnoses for a variety of diseases. Disorders covered include cholestasis, metabolic disorders and hepatitis, with their presentation across the spectrum of infancy, childhood and adolescence discussed. The indications and surgical aspects of liver transplant are explained and post-transplant care is described in detail. This is a valuable resource for pediatricians, hepatologists, gastroenterologists and all clinicians involved in the care of children with liver diseases.
Clarifying the relationship between depression symptoms and cardiometabolic and related health could clarify risk factors and treatment targets. The objective of this study was to assess whether depression symptoms in midlife are associated with the subsequent onset of cardiometabolic health problems.
The study sample comprised 787 male twin veterans with polygenic risk score data who participated in the Harvard Twin Study of Substance Abuse (‘baseline’) and the longitudinal Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (‘follow-up’). Depression symptoms were assessed at baseline [mean age 41.42 years (s.d. = 2.34)] using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version III, Revised. The onset of eight cardiometabolic conditions (atrial fibrillation, diabetes, erectile dysfunction, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, myocardial infarction, sleep apnea, and stroke) was assessed via self-reported doctor diagnosis at follow-up [mean age 67.59 years (s.d. = 2.41)].
Total depression symptoms were longitudinally associated with incident diabetes (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.07–1.57), erectile dysfunction (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10–1.59), hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04–1.53), and sleep apnea (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.13–1.74) over 27 years after controlling for age, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index, C-reactive protein, and polygenic risk for specific health conditions. In sensitivity analyses that excluded somatic depression symptoms, only the association with sleep apnea remained significant (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.09–1.60).
A history of depression symptoms by early midlife is associated with an elevated risk for subsequent development of several self-reported health conditions. When isolated, non-somatic depression symptoms are associated with incident self-reported sleep apnea. Depression symptom history may be a predictor or marker of cardiometabolic risk over decades.
The vacuum-exhausted isolation locker (VEIL) provides a safety barrier during the care of COVID-19 patients. The VEIL is a 175-L enclosure with exhaust ports to continuously extract air through viral particle filters connected to hospital suction. Our experiments show that the VEIL contains and exhausts exhaled aerosols and droplets.
In recent years, a variety of efforts have been made in political science to enable, encourage, or require scholars to be more open and explicit about the bases of their empirical claims and, in turn, make those claims more readily evaluable by others. While qualitative scholars have long taken an interest in making their research open, reflexive, and systematic, the recent push for overarching transparency norms and requirements has provoked serious concern within qualitative research communities and raised fundamental questions about the meaning, value, costs, and intellectual relevance of transparency for qualitative inquiry. In this Perspectives Reflection, we crystallize the central findings of a three-year deliberative process—the Qualitative Transparency Deliberations (QTD)—involving hundreds of political scientists in a broad discussion of these issues. Following an overview of the process and the key insights that emerged, we present summaries of the QTD Working Groups’ final reports. Drawing on a series of public, online conversations that unfolded at www.qualtd.net, the reports unpack transparency’s promise, practicalities, risks, and limitations in relation to different qualitative methodologies, forms of evidence, and research contexts. Taken as a whole, these reports—the full versions of which can be found in the Supplementary Materials—offer practical guidance to scholars designing and implementing qualitative research, and to editors, reviewers, and funders seeking to develop criteria of evaluation that are appropriate—as understood by relevant research communities—to the forms of inquiry being assessed. We dedicate this Reflection to the memory of our coauthor and QTD working group leader Kendra Koivu.1
The contribution of neonatal cyanosis, inherent to cyanotic congenital heart disease, to the magnitude of neurologic injury during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest has not been fully delineated. This study investigates the impact of cyanosis and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest on brain injury.
Neonatal piglets were randomised to placement of a pulmonary artery to left atrium shunt to create cyanosis or sham thoracotomy. At day 7, animals were randomised to undergo deep hypothermic circulatory arrest or sham. Arterial oxygen tension and haematocrit were obtained. Neurobehavioural performance was serially assessed. The animals were sacrificed on day 14. Brain tissue was assessed for neuronal necrosis using a 5-point histopathologic score.
Four experimental groups were analysed (sham, n = 10; sham + deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, n = 8; shunt, n = 9; shunt + deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, n = 7). Cyanotic piglets had significantly higher haematocrit and lower partial pressure of oxygen at day 14 than non-cyanotic piglets. There were no statistically significant differences in neurobehavioural scores at day 1. However, shunt + deep hypothermic circulatory arrest piglets had evidence of greater neuronal injury than sham animals (median (range): 2 (0–4) versus 0 (0–0), p = 0.02).
Cyanotic piglets undergoing deep hypothermic circulatory arrest had increased neuronal injury compared to sham animals. Significant injury was not seen for either cyanosis or deep hypothermic circulatory arrest alone relative to shams. These findings suggest an interaction between cyanosis and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and may partially explain the suboptimal neurologic outcomes seen in children with cyanotic heart disease who undergo deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.
Permian millipedes are rare, especially so considering the relative abundance of millipedes in Carboniferous rocks. We report an early Permian millipede fauna containing three new genera and species of millipedes (Oklahomasoma richardsspurense new genus new species, Karstiulus fortsillensis new genus new species, and Dolesea subtila new genus new species) found in fossil-producing pockets of the Fort Sill fissures exposed in the Dolese Quarry near Richards Spur, southwest Oklahoma, USA. These are the first new genera of invertebrates to be described from this site, one of the most prolific fossil-vertebrate sites in the world. We also comment on taxa with morphological similarities and note previously described occurrences of Permian millipedes as well as occurrences of fossil myriapods (millipedes and centipedes) in karst deposits (caves and fissure fills) in Europe, Africa, Asia, North America, and the Caribbean. In contrast with the forms found at Richards Spur, most of these previous accounts of millipedes found in caves and fissure fills are of Pleistocene forms that are closely allied to modern taxa. The taxa from Richards Spur bear some similarities to Pennsylvanian forms. Karst (cave and fissure) faunas should be ranked with concretion faunas, cannel coals, and amber faunas as a major source of fossil myriapods.
To test the effectiveness of a social network intervention (SNI) to improve children’s healthy drinking behaviours.
A three-arm cluster randomised control trial design was used. In the SNI, a subset of children were selected and trained as ‘influence agents’ to promote water consumption–as an alternative to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB)–among their peers. In the active control condition, all children were simultaneously exposed to the benefits of water consumption. The control condition received no intervention.
Eleven schools in the Netherlands.
Four hundred and fifty-one children (Mage = 10·74, SDage = 0·97; 50·8 % girls).
Structural path models showed that children exposed to the SNI consumed 0·20 less SSB per day compared to those in the control condition (β = 0·25, P = 0·035). There was a trend showing that children exposed to the SNI consumed 0·17 less SSB per day than those in the active control condition (β = 0·20, P = 0·061). No differences were found between conditions for water consumption. However, the moderation effects of descriptive norms (β = –0·12, P = 0·028) and injunctive norms (β = 0·11–0·14, both P = 0·050) indicated that norms are more strongly linked to water consumption in the SNI condition compared to the active control and control conditions.
These findings suggest that a SNI promoting healthy drinking behaviours may prevent children from consuming more SSB. Moreover, for water consumption, the prevailing social norms in the context play an important role in mitigating the effectiveness of the SNI.
Inflammation may contribute to the high prevalence of depressive symptoms seen in lung cancer. “Sickness behavior” is a cluster of symptoms induced by inflammation that are similar but distinct from depressive symptoms. The Sickness Behavior Inventory-Revised (SBI-R) was developed to measure sickness behavior. We hypothesized that the SBI-R would demonstrate adequate psychometric properties in association with inflammation.
Participants with stage IV lung cancer (n = 92) were evaluated for sickness behavior using the SBI-R. Concomitant assessments were made of depression (Patient Hospital Questionniare-9, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP)]. Classical test theory (CTT) was applied and multivariate models were created to explain SBI-R associations with depression and inflammation. Factor Analysis was also used to identify the underlying factor structure of the hypothesized construct of sickness behavior. A longitudinal analysis was conducted for a subset of participants.
The sample mean for the 12-item SBI-R was 8.3 (6.7) with a range from 0 to 33. The SBI-R demonstrated adequate internal consistency with a Cronbach's coefficient of 0.85, which did not increase by more than 0.01 with any single-item removal. This analysis examined factor loadings onto a single factor extracted using the principle components method. Eleven items had factor loadings that exceeded 0.40. SBI-R total scores were significantly correlated with depressive symptoms (r = 0.78, p < 0.001) and CRP (r = 0.47, p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed that inflammation and depressive symptoms explained 67% of SBI-R variance.
Significance of results
The SBI-R demonstrated adequate reliability and construct validity in this patient population with metastatic lung cancer. The observed findings suggest that the SBI-R can meaningfully capture the presence of sickness behavior and may facilitate a greater understanding of inflammatory depression.
Cognitive impairments, which contribute to the profound functional deficits observed in psychotic disorders, have found to be associated with abnormalities in trial-level cognitive control. However, neural tasks operate within the context of sustained cognitive states, which can be assessed with ‘background connectivity’ following the removal of task effects. To date, little is known about the integrity of brain processes supporting the maintenance of a cognitive state in individuals with psychotic disorders. Thus, here we examine background connectivity during executive processing in a cohort of participants with first-episode psychosis (FEP).
The following fMRI study examined background connectivity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), during working memory engagement in a group of 43 patients with FEP, relative to 35 healthy controls (HC). Findings were also examined in relation to measures of executive function.
The FEP group relative to HC showed significantly lower background DLPFC connectivity with bilateral superior parietal lobule (SPL) and left inferior parietal lobule. Background connectivity between DLPFC and SPL was also positively associated with overall cognition across all subjects and in our FEP group. In comparison, resting-state frontoparietal connectivity did not differ between groups and was not significantly associated with overall cognition, suggesting that psychosis-related alterations in executive networks only emerged during states of goal-oriented behavior.
These results provide novel evidence indicating while frontoparietal connectivity at rest appears intact in psychosis, when engaged during a cognitive state, it is impaired possibly undermining cognitive control capacities in FEP.
Potential effectiveness of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) systems depends upon seed shatter of the target weed species at crop maturity, enabling its collection and processing at crop harvest. However, seed retention likely is influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed shatter phenology in thirteen economically important broadleaf weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to four weeks after physiological maturity at multiple sites spread across fourteen states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic U.S. Greater proportions of seeds were retained by weeds in southern latitudes and shatter rate increased at northern latitudes. Amaranthus species seed shatter was low (0 to 2%), whereas shatter varied widely in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) (2 to 90%) over the weeks following soybean physiological maturity. Overall, the broadleaf species studied shattered less than ten percent of their seeds by soybean harvest. Our results suggest that some of the broadleaf species with greater seed retention rates in the weeks following soybean physiological maturity may be good candidates for HWSC.
The distribution of genetic diversity in invasive plant populations can have important management implications. Alligatorweed [Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.] was introduced into the United States around 1900 and has since spread throughout much of the southern United States and California. A successful biological control program was initiated in the late 1960s that reduced A. philoxeroides in the southern United States, although control has varied geographically. The degree to which variation among genotypes may be responsible for variation in control efficacy has not been well studied due to a lack of genetic data. We sampled 373 plants from 90 sites across the United States and genotyped all samples at three chloroplast regions to help inform future management efforts. Consistent with clonal spread, there was high differentiation between sites, yet we found six haplotypes and high haplotype diversity (mean h = 0.48) across states, suggesting this plant has been introduced multiple times. Two of the haplotypes correspond to previously described biotypes that differ in their susceptibility to herbicides and herbivory. The geographic distribution of the three common haplotypes varied by latitude and longitude, while the other haplotypes were widespread or localized to one or a few sites. All the haplotypes we screened are hexaploid (6n = 102), which may enhance biological control. Future studies can use these genetic data to determine whether genotypes differ in their invasiveness or respond differently to control measures. Some states, for instance, have mainly a single haplotype that may respond more uniformly to a single control strategy, whereas other states may require a variety of control strategies. These data will also provide the basis for identifying the source regions in South America, which may lead to the discovery of new biological control agents more closely matched to particular genotypes.
The San Pedro de Atacama oases, located in northern Chile’s hyperarid Atacama Desert, have been occupied for at least 3000 years. Here, we examine cemetery use in the oases, with emphasis on the Middle Period (ca. AD 400–1000). By modeling of a large corpus (n=243) of radiocarbon dates, over 90% of which are direct AMS assays of human bone collagen, we attempt to establish a temporal framework by which to explore the establishment of formalized social inequality in this period. Modeling of these dates at three locally defined scales (all ayllus, inter-ayllu, and intra-ayllu) permit heretofore unavailable insights into the chronological and spatial dimensions of life and mortuary activity in the oases and allow us to better contextualize patterns of social inequality during the dynamic Middle Period. The results of this modeling indicate two distinct peaks of occupation during the Middle Period in San Pedro and document significant temporal variability in cemetery use patterns on both inter- and intra-ayllu scales. These results stress the importance of local social and environmental factors to the occupation of the oases and provide crucial chronological structure for future archaeological and bioarchaeological research in the region.
This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
There is a broad consensus that state capacity is central to economic and institutional development. But while the concept originated as a tool for macro-historical and comparative analysis, its success has led the term ‘capacity’ to become a default metaphor for discussing the quality of government bureaucracies. This paper discusses the limitations to conceiving of narrower questions of bureaucratic performance and policy implementation through the lens of the broad, aggregate concept of capacity. Whereas capacity refers to bureaucracies' hypothetical potential, this usually differs from their actual actions due to internal information and incentive problems created by bureaucracies' collective nature, and the constraints and uncertainty imposed by their multiple political principals. Capacity is a convenient shorthand term and is appropriate for some purposes, but it achieves this convenience by abstracting away from the mechanisms that determine bureaucratic performance and policy implementation. To advance the study of bureaucratic quality, researchers should seek to understand the implications of bureaucracies' collective nature, engage with contextual specificity and contingency in policy implementation, and focus measurement and reform efforts more towards actual performance than hypothetical capacity.