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The main objective was to assess iodine status (thyroid volume (Tvol) and urinary iodine concentration (UIC)) and their determinants in Saharawi refugee women.
A cross-sectional survey was performed during January–February 2007. Tvol was measured by ultrasound and iodine concentration was analysed in spot urine samples and in household drinking water. Anthropometry and Hb concentration were measured and background variables were collected using pre-coded questionnaires.
The survey was undertaken in four long-term refugee camps in the Algerian desert.
Non-pregnant women (n 394), 15–45 years old, randomly selected.
Median (25th percentile–75th percentile (P25–P75)) UIC was 466 (294–725) μg/l. Seventy-four per cent had UIC above 300 μg/l and 46 % above 500 μg/l. Median (P25–P75) Tvol was 9·4 (7·4–12·0) ml and the goitre prevalence was 22 %. UIC was positively associated with iodine in drinking water and negatively associated with breast-feeding, and these two variables explained 28 % of the variation in UIC. The mean (sd) Hb level was 11·8 (2·4) g/dl. In total 46 % were anaemic with 14 %, 25 % and 7 %, classified with respectively mild, moderate and severe anaemia.
The Saharawi women had high UIC, high levels of iodine in drinking water and increased Tvol and probably suffered from iodine-induced goitre. The high prevalence of anaemia is considered to be a severe public health concern. To what extent the excessive iodine intake and the anaemia have affected thyroid function is unknown and should be addressed in future studies.
To assess the prevalence of enlarged thyroid volume (Tvol) in Saharawi refugee children, and their urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and to identify possible sources of excess iodine intake.
A cross-sectional survey was performed during January–February 2007. Tvol was measured by ultrasound and iodine concentration was analysed in casual urine samples, in household drinking water and in milk samples from household livestock.
The study was undertaken in four refugee camps in the Algerian desert.
The subjects were 421 Saharawi children, 6–14 years old.
Enlarged Tvol was found in 56 % (Tvol-for-age) and 86 % (Tvol-for-body-surface-area) of the children. The median (25th percentile–75th percentile, P25–P75) UIC was 565 (357–887) μg/l. The median (P25–P75) iodine concentration in household drinking water was 108 (77–297) μg/l. None of the children had UIC below 100 μg/l, 16 % had UIC between 100 and 299 μg/l, and 84 % had UIC above 300 μg/l. There was a positive association between Tvol and whether the household possessed livestock.
The children are suffering from endemic goitre and high UIC caused probably by an excessive intake of iodine. The excessive iodine intakes probably originate from drinking water and milk.
To describe which functions potential employers of public health nutritionists in Norway find important for a person trained in public health nutrition to be able to carry out. Further, to illustrate how the findings were used in the development of a curriculum for a bachelor in public health nutrition at Akershus University College.
A non-random, cross-sectional survey using a questionnaire with both pre-coded and open-ended questions.
Ninety-one establishments working in various fields more or less related to nutrition responded (response rate of 45 %).
Local offices of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority were over-represented among respondents. Functions related to communication and food and nutrition laws and regulations were most frequently rated as important by the respondents. Functions in nutrition research, project work and policy and planning were also regarded important by more than half of the respondents. The priorities of the potential employers together with the additional comments and suggestions were taken into account when a new curriculum on public health nutrition was developed.
The assessment of functions prioritised by employers of public health nutritionists gave a valuable input for developing a new curriculum in public health nutrition. It reflected the challenges of the real world that public health nutritionists will work in and therefore helped making the curriculum potentially more relevant.
To assess the relative validity of the second version of a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (QFFQ), designed to measure the habitual food and nutrient intake in one season in rural populations in Western Mali, West Africa.
The dietary intake during the previous week was assessed with the 164-item QFFQ administered by interview. This was compared with the intake from a 2-day weighed record (WR) with weighed recipes.
The village of Ouassala in the Kayes region, Western Mali.
Thirty-four women and 36 men aged 15–45 years, from 29 households.
The QFFQ gave a lower intake of lunch and dinner and a higher intake of snacks than the WR. The discrepancies were larger for women than for men. The median proportion of subjects classified in the same quartile of intake was 29% for food groups and 36% for energy and nutrients. For classification into extreme opposite quartiles, the median proportion was 6% for food groups and 7% for energy and nutrients. Spearman's rank correlation for energy and nutrients ranged from 0.16 (% energy from protein) to 0.62 (retinol equivalents).
The second version of the QFFQ tends to underestimate total food weight. The methods used for estimating food portion size should therefore be applied with caution. The changes made from the first version had little effect. The ability to rank subjects according to dietary intake is similar with both versions. The improved layout of the new QFFQ makes it a more user-friendly tool for comparing dietary intake between population groups and for measuring changes over time.
The purpose of this study was to validate a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) created for assessing the usual intake of foods and nutrients in the prevailing season in Western Mali.
Intake of foods and nutrients over the week preceding the interview was measured with a 69-item QFFQ. Intakes were compared with intakes as measured with 2-day combined weighed and recalled diet records.
A rural village in Western Mali, West Africa.
Twenty-seven men and 48 women (15–59 years of age) representing 18 households.
Spearman rank correlations between intake of food groups from the QFFQ and the diet record ranged from 0.09 (meat/fish) to 0.58 (tea/coffee). Median coefficient was 0.37. Median Spearman correlation coefficient for nutrient intake was 0.40. Men had higher median correlation coefficients than did women. The proportion of subjects being classified into the same quartile of food intake was on median 33%, while a median of 7% was misclassified into extreme quartiles. Correct classification into the same quartile for intake of nutrients was on median 34% while a median of 4% was grossly misclassified. Intakes of most food groups and nutrients as measured by the QFFQ were higher than those measured by the diet records. However, while men had higher estimated intakes for foods eaten in-between meals, women in general had higher intake of foods eaten in the main meals.
This QFFQ can be used for comparing the intake of foods and nutrients between groups within this study population. It therefore represents a useful tool in the surveillance of food intake in the population, both in identifying vulnerable groups and for tracking food intake over time. The differences between men and women in overestimating food intake need to be taken into account when using the method.
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