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Although a recent study reported that survivors of critical illness have an increased risk of suicide, the suicide rate and factors associated with suicide in patients with sepsis have not yet been investigated.
We aimed to examine the prevalence and risk factors of suicide among patients with sepsis in South Korea.
All adult patients who were admitted to all hospitals in South Korea with a main diagnosis of sepsis, from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2018, were included in the study. The primary outcome was suicide within 1 year after sepsis diagnosis.
A total of 251 837 adult patients with sepsis were included, of which 132 691 patients (52.7%) died within 1 year after the diagnosis of sepsis, and death by suicide was the cause in 3903 patients (1.5%). Older age, male gender, living in a rural area, higher Charlson Comorbidity Index and Elixhauser Comorbidity Index scores, invasive treatment (continuous renal replacement therapy and mechanical ventilator support) and admission to a hospital with low annual case volumes were associated with a higher risk of suicide. In addition, concurrent substance misuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, dementia and previous attempt of suicide or self-harm were associated with a higher risk of suicide.
During the 1-year follow-up period, 1.5% of patients died by suicide after the diagnosis of sepsis in South Korea. Knowledge of the factors associated with suicide might allow for earlier intervention to potentially reduce the number of suicide attempts in patients with sepsis.
Mental illness among survivors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) during the post-illness period is an emerging and important health issue.
We aimed to investigate the prevalence of mental illness and the associated factors for its development among COVID-2019 survivors.
From 1 January to 4 June 2020, data were extracted from the National Health Insurance Service COVID-19 database in South Korea. Patients with COVID-19 were defined as those whose test results indicated that they had contracted the infection, regardless of disease severity. COVID-19 survivors were defined as those who recovered from the infection. The primary end-point was the development of mental illness, which was evaluated between 1 January and 1 December 2020.
A total 260 883 individuals were included in this study, and 2.36% (6148) were COVID-19 survivors. The COVID-19 survivors showed higher prevalence of mental illness than the control group (12.0% in the COVID-19 survivors v. 7.7% in the control group; odds ratio (OR) = 2.40, 95% CI 2.21–2.61, P < 0.001). Additionally, compared with the control group, the no specific treatment for COVID-19 group (OR = 2.23, 95% CI 2.03–2.45, P < 0.001) and specific treatment for COVID-19 group (OR = 3.27, 95% CI 2.77–3.87, P < 0.001) showed higher prevalence of mental illness among survivors.
In South Korea, COVID-19 survivors had a higher risk of developing mental illness compared with the rest of the populations. Moreover, this trend was more evident in COVID-19 survivors who experienced specific treatment in the hospital.
Improved root architecture of cultivated barley can improve crop performance in drought-prone areas. In this study, seedlings of 315 wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) accessions from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) were grown under hydroponic conditions for 8 d after germination and then root characteristics were analysed. Significant differences were observed among the accessions with regard to seminal root number (SRN), root length (RL), specific root length (SRL), root fresh weight and root dry weight (RDW). Principal component analysis explained about 81% of the total variation for ten traits. Principal component (PC) 1, PC2 and PC3 explained about 38, 30 and 13% of the total variation among the accessions. The two most prominent contributors in each PC were RL and SRL, RDW and SRN, and the longitude and latitude of the collection sites, respectively. Accessions WBDC266, WBDC302, WBDC286 and WBDC011 had the longest RL and the highest RDW, specific dry root weight and SRL, respectively. These accessions may be useful genetic resources for the improvement of these root traits in cultivated barley.
Plasma doping (PLAD) process utilizing PH3 plasma to fabricate n-type junction with supplied bias of −1 kV and doping time of 60 sec under the room temperature is presented. The RTA process is performed at 900 °C for 10 sec. A defect-free surface is corroborated by TEM and DXRD analyses, and examined SIMS profiles reveal that shallow n+ junctions are formed with surface doping concentration of 1021atoms/cm3. The junction depth increases in proportion to the O2 gas flow when the N2 flow is fixed during the RTA process, resulting in a decreased sheet resistance. Measured doping profiles and the sheet resistance confirm that the n+ junction depth less than 52 nm and minimum sheet resistance of 313 Ω/□ are feasible.
Copper aluminium oxide(CuAlO2) particles, a promissing p-type TCO(transparent conducting oxide), were prepared by spray pyrolysis. Delafossite phase of CuAlO2 was obtained when copper nitrate, copper acetate and copper sulfate, divalent copper precursors, were used as copper precursor and aluminium nitrate as aluminium precursors. However, when copper chloride (CuCl, a monovalent copper precursor) was used, the delafossite phase was not obtained regardless of the type of aluminium precursor. The O2-doped CuAlO2 was obtained by using oxygen as carrier gas.
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