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To assess the associations between single foods, nutrients, dietary patterns and dietary scores, and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, TNF-α and leucocyte count).
Cross-sectional, population-based study.
City of Lausanne, Switzerland, years 2009–2012.
Adults (n 4027; 46·5 % men), mean age 57·2 (sd 10·2) years. Dietary intake was collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ. Single foods and nutrients, three dietary patterns (‘Meat & fries’; ‘Fruits & vegetables’; ‘Fatty & sugary’) and three dietary scores (two Mediterranean; Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)) were used. Associations were assessed using correlation and multivariable linear regression.
After adjusting for total energy intake, gender and other sociodemographic factors, no individual macro- or micronutrient was associated with inflammatory markers. Among single foods, only fruit intake was negatively associated with CRP levels (standardized regression score=−0·043, P<0·01). The ‘Fruits & vegetables’ pattern, the Mediterranean and the AHEI scores were negatively associated with CRP levels (standardized regression score=−0·079, −0·043 and −0·067, respectively, all P<0·01). When entered simultaneously with fruit intake, the ‘Fruits & vegetables’ pattern, the Mediterranean and the AHEI scores tended to remain significantly and negatively associated with CRP levels, while the association with fruit intake was no longer significant. No association between all dietary markers and IL-6, TNF-α or leucocyte count was found.
Dietary scores, but not individual foods, are associated with inflammatory markers in the general population.
To assess nutrition trends of the Geneva population for the period 1999–2009.
Bus Santé Geneva study, which conducts annual health surveys in random samples of the Geneva population. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated FFQ and trends were assessed by linear regression.
Data from 9283 participants (50 % women, mean age 51·5 (sd 10·8) years) were analysed.
In both genders total energy intake decreased from 1999 to 2009, by 2·9 % in men and by 6·3 % in women (both trends P < 0·005). Vegetable protein and total carbohydrate intakes, expressed as a percentage of total energy intake, increased in women. MUFA intake increased while SFA, PUFA and alcohol intakes decreased in both genders. Intakes of Ca, Fe and carotene decreased in both genders. No changes in fibre, vitamin D and vitamin A intakes were found. Similar findings were obtained after excluding participants with extreme dietary intakes, except that the decreases in SFA, vegetable protein and carbohydrate were no longer significant in women.
Between 1999 and 2009, a small decrease in total energy intake was noted in the Geneva population. Although the decrease in alcohol and SFA intakes is of interest, the decrease in Ca and Fe intakes may have adverse health effects in the future.
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