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Decreased hemoglobin levels increase the risk of developing dementia among the elderly. However, the underlying mechanisms that link decreased hemoglobin levels to incident dementia still remain unclear, possibly due to the fact that few studies have reported on the relationship between low hemoglobin levels and neuroimaging markers. We, therefore, investigated the relationships between decreased hemoglobin levels, cerebral small-vessel disease (CSVD), and cortical atrophy in cognitively healthy women and men.
Cognitively normal women (n = 1,022) and men (n = 1,018) who underwent medical check-ups and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were enrolled at a health promotion center. We measured hemoglobin levels, white matter hyperintensities (WMH) scales, lacunes, and microbleeds. Cortical thickness was automatically measured using surface based methods. Multivariate regression analyses were performed after controlling for possible confounders.
Decreased hemoglobin levels were not associated with the presence of WMH, lacunes, or microbleeds in women and men. Among women, decreased hemoglobin levels were associated with decreased cortical thickness in the frontal (Estimates, 95% confidence interval, −0.007, (−0.013, −0.001)), temporal (−0.010, (−0.018, −0.002)), parietal (−0.009, (−0.015, −0.003)), and occipital regions (−0.011, (−0.019, −0.003)). Among men, however, no associations were observed between hemoglobin levels and cortical thickness.
Our findings suggested that decreased hemoglobin levels affected cortical atrophy, but not increased CSVD, among women, although the association is modest. Given the paucity of modifiable risk factors for age-related cognitive decline, our results have important public health implications.
To compare the characteristics and risk factors for surgical site infections (SSIs) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in a nationwide survey, using shared case detection and recording systems.
Retrospective cohort study.
Twenty-six hospitals participating in the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS).
From 2006 to 2009, all patients undergoing THA and TKA in KONIS were enrolled.
SSI occurred in 161 (2.35%) of 6,848 cases (3,422 THAs and 3,426 TKAs). Pooled mean SSI rates were 1.69% and 2.82% for THA and TKA, respectively. Of the cases we examined, 42 (26%) were superficial-incisional SSIs and 119 (74%) were “severe” SSIs; of the latter, 24 (15%) were deep-incisional SSIs and 95 (59%) were organ/space SSIs. In multivariate analysis, a duration of preoperative hospital stay of greater than 3 days was a risk factor for total SSI after both THA and TKA. Diabetes mellitus, revision surgery, prolonged duration of surgery (above the 75th percentile), and the need for surgery due to trauma were independent risk factors for total and severe SSI after THA, while male sex and an operating room without artificial ventilation were independent risk factors for total and severe SSI after TKA. A large volume of surgeries (more than 10 procedures per month) protected against total and severe SSI, but only in patients who underwent TKA.
Risk factors for SSI after arthroplasty differ according to the site of the arthroplasty. Therefore, clinicians should take into account the site of arthroplasty in the analysis of SSI and the development of strategies for reducing SSI.
To evaluate the risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) after gastric surgery in patients in Korea.
A nationwide prospective multicenter study.
Twenty university-affiliated hospitals in Korea.
The Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS), a Web-based system, was developed. Patients in 20 Korean hospitals from 2007 to 2009 were prospectively monitored for SSI for up to 30 days after gastric surgery. Demographic data, hospital characteristics, and potential perioperative risk factors were collected and analyzed, using multivariate logistic regression models.
Of the 4,238 case patients monitored, 64.9% (2,752) were male, and mean age (±SD) was 58.8 (±12.3) years. The SSI rates were 2.92, 6.45, and 10.87 per 100 operations for the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system risk index categories of 0, 1, and 2 or 3, respectively. The majority (69.4%) of the SSIs observed were organ or space SSIs. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.67 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09–2.58]), increased operation time (1.20 [1.07–1.34] per 1-hour increase), reoperation (7.27 [3.68–14.38]), combined multiple procedures (1.79 [1.13–2.83]), prophylactic administration of the first antibiotic dose after skin incision (3.00 [1.09–8.23]), and prolonged duration (≥7 days) of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP; 2.70 [1.26–5.64]) were independently associated with increased risk of SSI.
Male sex, inappropriate SAP, and operation-related variables are independent risk factors for SSI after gastric surgery.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted remarkable attention as reinforcement for composites owing to their outstanding properties1-3. CNT/Cu nanocomposites were fabricated by mixing the nano-sized Cu powders with multi-wall carbon nanotubes and followed by the spark plasma sintering process. The CNT/Cu nanocomposite fabricated from nano-sized Cu powders shows more homogeneous distribution of CNTs in matrix compared to that fabricated from macro-sized Cu powders. The hardness of CNT/Cu nanocomposite fabricated from nano-sized Cu powders increases with increasing the volume fraction of CNTs, while the hardness of that fabricated from macro-sized Cu powders decreases with the addition of CNTs.
To evaluate the clinical features of ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterobacter bacteremia and to examine the risk factors for ciprofloxacin resistance in Enterobacter species isolates causing bacteremia.
A case-control study.
A 1,500-bed, tertiary-care university hospital and referral center.
All patients older than 16 years with Enterobacter species isolated from blood were enrolled. The medical records of 183 patients with clinically significant Enterobacter bacteremia from January 1998 to December 2002 were identified. We compared patients with bacteremia caused by ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates with patients with bacteremia caused by ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates.
Twenty-three (12.6%) of the patients had bacteremia caused by isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin. There were no significant differences in age, gender, underlying diseases, primary site of infection, or Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score between the ciprofloxacin-resistant and the ciprofloxacin-susceptible groups. Broad-spectrum cephalosporin resistance, defined as resistance to cefotaxime or ceftazidime in vitro, was detected in 21 (91.3%) of 23 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates compared with 65 (40.6%) of 160 ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates (P < .001). Multivariate analysis revealed that independent risk factors for ciprofloxacin resistance were the prior receipt of fluoroquinolones (P < .001) and broad-spectrum cephalosporin resistance (P < .001).
In Enterobacter species isolates causing bacteremia, ciprofloxacin resistance was closely associated with the prior receipt of fluoroquinolones and broad-spectrum cephalosporin resistance. The close relationship between ciprofloxacin resistance and broad-spectrum cephalosporin resistance is particularly troublesome because it severely restricts the therapeutic options for Enterobacter species infection.
To evaluate risk factors and treatment outcomes of bloodstream infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP).
Retrospective case-control study. Stored blood isolates of K. pneumoniae were tested for ESBL production by NCCLS guidelines, double-disk synergy test, or both.
A 1,500-bed, tertiary-care university hospital and referral center.
Sixty case-patients with bacteremia due to ESBL-KP were compared with 60 matched control-patients with non-ESBL-KP.
There were no significant differences in age, gender, APACHE II score, or underlying diseases between the groups. Independent risk factors for infections caused by ESBL-KP were urinary catheterization, invasive procedure within the previous 72 hours, and an increasing number of antibiotics administered within the previous 30 days. Complete response rate, evaluated 72 hours after initial antimicrobial therapy, was higher among control-patients (13.3% vs 36.7%; P = .003). Treatment failure rate was higher among case-patients (35.0% vs 15%; P = .011). Overall 30-day mortality rate was 30% for case-patients and 28.3% for control-patients (P = .841). Case-patients who received imipenem or ciprofloxacin as a definitive antibiotic had 10.5% mortality. The mortality rate for initially ineffective therapy was no higher than that for initially effective therapy (9.1% vs 11.1%; P = 1.000), but statistical power was low for evaluating mortality in the absence of septic shock.
For K. pneumoniae bacteremia, patients with ESBL-KP had a higher initial treatment failure rate but did not have higher mortality if antimicrobial therapy was appropriately adjusted in this study with limited statistical power.
To evaluate the outcome of attempted Hickman catheter salvage in neutropenic cancer patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia who were not using antibiotic lock therapy.
Retrospective cohort study.
A university-affiliated, tertiary-care hospital with 1,500 beds for adult patients.
All neutropenic cancer patients who had a Hickman catheter and S. aureus bacteremia (32 episodes in 29 patients) between January 1998 and March 2002.
Salvage attempts were defined as cases where the Hickman catheter was not removed until we obtained the results of follow-up blood cultures performed 48 to 72 hours after starting treatment with antistaphylococcal antibiotics. Salvage was considered to be successful if the Hickman catheter was still in place 3 months later without recurrent bacteremia or death.
Catheter salvage was attempted in 24 (75%) of the 32 episodes. Of the salvage attempts, the success rate was 50% (12 of 24). Salvage attempts were successful in 14% (1 of 7) of the episodes with positive follow-up blood cultures, and in 65% (11 of 17) of those with negative follow-up blood cultures (P = .07). If the analysis is confined to cases with no external signs of catheter infection, salvage attempts were successful in 14% (1 of 7) of the episodes with positive follow-up blood cultures and in 80% (8 of 10) of those with negative follow-up blood cultures (P = .02).
In neutropenic cancer patients with S. aureus bacteremia, attempted catheter salvage without antibiotic lock therapy was successful in 50% of the cases.
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