To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In this cohort of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp hospital-onset bacteremia, isolated fluoroquinolone resistance had a larger relative impact on mortality than other phenotypic resistance patterns. This finding may support stewardship efforts targeting unnecessary fluoroquinolone use and increased attention from infection prevention and control departments.
Social isolation and homebound statuses are possible risk factors for increased mortality among older adults. However, no study has addressed the impact of accumulation of these two factors on mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether such accumulation increased the risk of all-cause mortality.
The analyzed sample was drawn from a mail survey of 1,023 older adults without instrumental activities of daily living disability. Participants were classified into four groups according to the frequency of both face-to-face and non-face-to-face interactions with others (social isolation and non-social isolation) and the frequency of going outdoors (homebound and non-homebound). Social isolation and homebound statuses were defined as having a social interaction less than once a week and going outdoors either every few days or less, respectively. All-cause mortality information during a six-year follow-up was obtained.
In total, 78 (7.6%) participants were both socially isolated and homebound. During the follow-up period, 65 participants died, with an overall mortality rate of 10.6 per 1000 person-years. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses demonstrated that older adults who were socially isolated and homebound showed a significantly higher risk of subsequent all-cause mortality compared with healthy adults who were neither socially isolated nor homebound, independent of potential covariates (aHR, 2.19; 95% CI: 1.04–4.63).
Our results suggest that the co-existence of social isolation and homebound statuses may synergistically increase risk of mortality. Both active and socially integrated lifestyle in later life might play a major role in maintaining a healthy status.
Asia is the world's most linguistically diverse continent and its diversity largely conforms to established global patterns that correlate linguistic diversity with biodiversity, latitude, and topography. However, one Asian region stands out as an anomaly in these patterns—Tibet, which is often portrayed as linguistically homogenous. A growing body of research now suggests that Tibet is linguistically diverse. In this article, we examine this literature in an attempt to quantify Tibet's linguistic diversity. We focus on the minority languages of Tibet—languages that are neither Chinese nor Tibetan. We provide five different estimates of how many minority languages are spoken in Tibet. We also interrogate these sources for clues about language endangerment among Tibet's minority languages and propose a sociolinguistic categorization of Tibet's minority languages that enables broad patterns of language endangerment to be perceived. Appendices include lists of the languages identified in each of our five estimates, along with references to key sources on each language. Our survey found that as many as 60 minority languages may be spoken in Tibet and that the majority of these languages are endangered to some degree. We hope our contribution inspires further research into the predicament of Tibet's minority languages and helps support community efforts to maintain and revitalize these languages.
Our previous study demonstrated that supplemental psyllium fibre increased cytoprotective heat-shock protein (Hsp) 25 levels in the intestinal cells of mice. Here, we examined the effect of psyllium fibre on colonic gene and protein expression and faecal microbiota in normal and colitic mice to improve the understanding of the preventive role of the supplement. DNA microarray analysis revealed that a 10 % psyllium fibre diet administered for 5 d up-regulated eleven extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated genes, including collagens and fibronectins, in normal mice. Acute colitis was induced using dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in mice that were administered a pre-feeding 5 to 10 % psyllium fibre diet for 5 d. Psyllium fibre partially ameliorated or resolved the DSS-induced colon damage and inflammation characterised by body weight loss, colon shortening, increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased tight junction protein expression in the colon. Analysis of faecal microbiota using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene demonstrated that psyllium fibre affected the colonic microbiota. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by growing intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers on membrane filter supports coated with or without fibronectin and collagen. Cells grown on collagen and fibronectin coating showed higher transepithelial electrical resistance, indicating a strengthening of barrier integrity. Therefore, increased Hsp25 levels and modification of colonic ECM contribute to the observed psyllium-mediated protection against DSS-induced colitis. Furthermore, ECM modification appears to play a role in the strengthening of the colon barrier. In conclusion, psyllium fibre may be useful in the prevention of intestinal inflammatory diseases.
Radiocarbon ages of Choukai Jindai cedar tree rings growing in the excess era of 14C concentrations during 2757–2437 cal BP were measured using 2 types of 14C measurement methods, i.e. liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The difference between the 2 methods is 3.7 ± 5.2 14C yr on average for 61 single-year tree rings, indicating good agreement between the methods. The Choukai data sets show a small sharp bump with an average 14C age of 2497.1 ± 3.0 14C yr BP during 2650–2600 cal BP. Although the profile of the Choukai LSC data set compares well with that of IntCal04, having a 14C age difference of 4.6 ± 5.3 14C yr on average, the Choukai LSC 14C ages indicate variability against the smoothed profile of IntCal04.
We measured the radiocarbon ages of 165 single-year tree rings from a Japanese Choukai Jindai cedar using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). By wiggle-matching the Choukai_AMS data set to the IntCal04 calibration data using OxCal v 3.10 and using the variation of the correlation coefficients between the Choukai_AMS and IntCal04 data sets, we precisely re-estimated that the 321 Choukai Jindai cedar tree rings range from 780 to 460 cal BC with an accuracy of 8 yr. The Choukai_AMS data set is older than the 3 raw data sets of European tree rings that comprise IntCal04. The Belfast and Seattle data sets are younger by −21.3 ± 5.5 and −22.7 ± 5.6 14C yr, respectively. The Choukai Jindai cedar is ∼22 14C yr older than the European tree rings, which is equivalent to an offset of −2.8‰ in 14C. In addition, the Choukai_AMS data set correlates well with the Belfast and Seattle data sets, with correlation coefficients of 0.89 and 0.68, respectively, between the temporal profiles. Hence, the temporal profile of the Choukai 14C ages shows a global variation.
We have measured the radiocarbon ages of 43 consecutive single-year tree rings using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) with a statistical accuracy of ∼2.3%. AMS 14C ages of the 36 viable samples are between 2708 and 2666 cal BP, a period in which the Δ14C of the IntCal04 curve (Reimer et al. 2004) shows an enhancement. The 14C ages of the samples are scattered with a Gaussian distribution around the interpolated IntCal04 calibration curve. The time profile of the deviations of the 36 14C ages from the interpolated IntCal04 calibration curve indicates a linear trend and a characteristic variability rather than a random fluctuation around the curve. The trend indicates a higher gradient than that of the interpolated IntCal04 calibration curve. The profile implies a periodic variation of approximately 11 yr and an amplitude of roughly 18 14C yr.
Psychological stress associated with caregiving is thought to underlie the high incidence of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and mortality, as well as reduced immune function, among caregivers of dementia patients. Here, we examined the effects of periodic leisure activities performed by caregivers of dementia patients with care recipients at home on perceived care burden and levels of stress hormones.
Participants were 42 caregivers aged ≥ 65 years of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's dementia. They were randomly assigned to intervention and non-intervention groups. The intervention group underwent a leisure activity program (30 min/3 times/week for 24 weeks) with the care recipient, and the control group underwent normal care activities.
The Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) score, a subjective indicator of care burden, significantly decreased after intervention in the intervention group (p < 0.05), whereas no difference was observed in the control group. No significant changes were observed in adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, and cortisol levels in both groups.
The lack of changes in stress hormone levels despite a decrease in subjective care burden in the intervention group might be explained by the effects of the chosen leisure activity on the neuroendocrine system. Our findings suggest that periodic leisure activities can reduce perceived care burden among caregivers of dementia patients. However, in order to evaluate accurately the effects of leisure activities of the present study, long-term follow-up of both caregivers and care recipients is necessary. The Nagoya University Department of Medicine Ethics Committee Clinical Trials Registry Number is 1290.
Improvements are greatest in the earlier weeks of antipsychotic treatment of patients with non-resistant schizophrenia.
To address the early time-line for improvement with antipsychotics in treatment-resistant schizophrenia.
Randomised double-blind trials of antipsychotic medication in adult patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia were investigated (last search June 2010). A series of meta-regression analyses were carried out to examine the effect of time on the average item scores in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) or Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) at three or more distinct time points within the first 6 weeks of treatment.
Study duration varied from 4 weeks to 1 year and the definitions of treatment resistance as well as of treatment response were not necessarily consistent across 19 identified studies, resulting in highly variable rates of response (0–76%). The mean standardised baseline item score in the PANSS or BPRS was 3.4 (s.e. = 0.06) in the five studies included in the meta-regression analysis, with the average baseline Clinical Global Impression – Severity score being 5.2 (marked illness). For the pooled population treated with a range of antipsychotics (n = 1019), significant reductions in the mean item scores occurred during the first 4 weeks; improvements observed in later weeks were smaller and non-significant. In contrast, weekly improvement with clozapine was significant throughout (n = 356).
Our findings provide preliminary evidence that the majority of improvement with antipsychotics may occur relatively early. More consistent improvements with clozapine may be associated with a gradual titration. To further elucidate response patterns, future studies are needed to provide data over regular intervals during earlier stages of treatment.
A photoemission study of dodecanethiol (DT)-capped Au nanoparticles on the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrates has been carried out in order to investigate in detail the electronic structures of metallic nanoparticles supported on the substrates. The present DT-capped Au nanoparticles show that the leading edge in the photoemission spectra near the Fermi level is not the Fermi edge, with the midpoint of the steep slope being away from the Fermi level. From these results, we discuss the electronic structures of DT-capped Au nanoparticles, especially nanoparticle-HOPG substrate interaction.
We have carried out an angle-resolved photoemission study of double Ag nanofilm structures, composed of an outer Ag nanofilm / Cu barrier layer / inner Ag nanofilm / Cu(111) substrate. From these results, we discuss the electronic coupling between the quantized electronic states in the double Ag nanofilm structures with various configurations.
In order to clarify the correlations between recording performances and fabrication processes in magneto-optical recording media, magnetic switching processes of TbFeCo films are studied. For a trilayer structure, with a thick magnetic layer, carrier to noise ratio(CNR) indicates maximum value for the composition with compensation temperature(Tcomp) being near room temperature. In a quadrilayer structure, on the other hand, where a thinner magnetic layer and Al reflector are employed, CNR indicates maximum vaiue for transition-metal(TM) rich composition with iower coercive force. Studies are made to interpret the results In terms of the difference in magnetic properties.
Fe-N films with thicknesses of 500–1000 Å have been epitaxially grown on lno-2 Gao-e As(001) substrates using MBE system. Deposition atmosphere was N2 + 20%NH3. and pressure during deposition was around 1 × 10−4 Torr. Two electron guns were used in order to control nitrogen concentration of 11 at% in Fe-N films. When substrate temperature was 150 °C, an Fe1 eN2 single crystal films were found to be formed after annealing at 150 °C. When the substrate temperature was around 300 °C, Fe1 eN2. films were grown epitaxial ly on lno-2 Gao-3 As without annealing, while Fe1 eN2 could not be grown at substrate temperature higher than 350 °C because of the formation of Fe2 As caused by the reaction between substrate and Fe–N films. RHEED and XRD patterns showed that Fe1 eN2 films was grown epitaxial ly and crystal orientation of Fe1 eN2 films are Fe1 eN2 (001)//lno-2 Gaoo-eAs(001) and Fe1 eN2 //lno-2 Gaoo-e As . Saturation magnetic flux density of Fe1 eN2 is 2.8˜3.0T.
This paper describes studies on high-quality InN growth on sapphire by RF-MBE. Critical procedures to obtain high-quality InN films were investigated and (1) nitridation process of sapphire substrates prior to growth, (2) precise control of V/III ratio and (3) selection of optimum growth temperature were found to be essential. Detailed structural characterizations by XRD, TEM, Raman scattering and EXAFS indicate that InN films obtained in this study have ideal hexagonal wurtzite structure. FWHMs of ω-2Θ mode XRD and E2(high)-phonon-mode of Raman scattering are as small as 28.9 arcsec and 3.2 cm-1, respectively. True band gap energy of InN is also discussed based on optical characterization results obtained from well-characterized hexagonal InN grown in this study. PbS, instead of InGaAs, was used as a detector for PL study in order to solve the problem coming from the cut-off wavelength of InGaAs detector. Based on these systematic studies on structural and optical property characterizations using high-quality InN, true band-gap energy of InN is suggested to be less than 0.67 eV and approximately 0.65 eV at room temperature. Single-crystalline InN films are also successfully grown on Si substrates by a brief nitridation of the Si substrates. Significant improvement of InN crystal quality on Si substrates by the insertion of an AlN buffer layer is also demonstrated.
The magnetic characteristics of the dilute magnetic system GaGdN are investigated by mainly soft-X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) in energy range of 1160 – 1240 eV. The strong MCD signals up to 30 % at 15K are observed. The temperature dependence of its intensity is not on simple Curie-Weiss curve and depicts three-step curve. A step around 40 – 100K suggests a new magnetic phase. The luminescence spectrum of GaGdN at low temperature is divided into three parts consisting of two broad bands around 432 nm and 503 nm and a sharp peak at 652 nm. This sharp line is assigned to the intra-transition of f – f orbital owing to the weak temperature dependence of the intensity and peak position. AlGdN grown by molecular beam epitaxy produces luminescence at 318.5 nm. X-ray absorption fine structure is examined to survey the occupancy of the Gd ion in the grown specimens.
A newly reported narrow bandgap for indium nitride means that the indium gallium nitride system of alloys can be a candidate for new high efficiency solar cells covering most of the solar spectrum. In this paper, n-InN films were grown on p-Si (100) substrates. We characterize, for the first time, photovoltaic properties using n-InN/p-Si hetero-junction grown by RF-MBE.
We have discovered a novel chemisorption method using octadecyltrimethoxysilane (ODMS), titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP), water, and toluene  to form highly-ordered self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of ODMS. The SAMs were formed rapidly from the active solution even when it was kept for three months. The solution and layers were characterized by several methods. We propose a mechanism for the rapid formation of the ODMS-SAM.
The galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri, is the sole member of the subfamily Shinkaiinae. It is abundant and forms dense beds around active hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough. Thousands of filamentous bacteria attached to the plumose setae on the ventral surface of this crab were observed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Nucleic acids were extracted from the filamentous bacteria, and the phylotypes of 16S rRNA genes were identified from 81 clones. These phylotypes were divided into three groups: Epsilonproteobacteria (74%); Gammaproteobacteria (20%); and Bacteroidetes (6%). Gamma- and major phylotypes of Epsilonproteobacteria were also detected using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. These Epsilon- and Gammaproteobacteria were closely related to cultured and uncultured bacteria from hydrothermal vent fields including episymbionts of vent-associated invertebrates such as Rimicaris exoculata, Alvinella pompejana, the scaly-foot snail, Kiwa hirsuta etc. The carbon isotopic compositions of the muscle of S. crosnieri and in filamentous bacteria were similar. The muscle of S. crosnieri contained monounsaturated C16 and C18 fatty acids, which are known to be characteristic of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria in H2S-rich marine habitats. Through the video images transmitted by a submersible and a remotely operated vehicle, S. crosnieri was observed to comb out its ventral setae using the third maxilliped and appeared to consume the contents. These evidences suggest the epibiotic association between S. crosnieri and the filamentous bacteria attached to the ventral setae of the crab, but the details of role and function are still unclear at the present study.