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Due to the lack of research between the inner layers in the structure of colonic mucous and the metabolism of fatty acid in the constipation model, we aim to determine the changes in the mucous phenotype of the colonic glycocalyx and the microbial community structure following treatment with Rhubarb extract in our research. The constipation and treatment models are generated using adult male C57BL/6N mice. We perform light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to detect a Muc2-rich inner mucus layer attached to mice colon under different conditions. In addition, 16S rDNA sequencing is performed to examine the intestinal flora. According to TEM images, we demonstrate that Rhubarb can promote mucin secretion and find direct evidence of dendritic structure-linked mucus structures with its assembly into a lamellar network in a pore size distribution in the isolated colon section. Moreover, the diversity of intestinal flora has noticeable changes in constipated mice. The present study characterizes a dendritic structure and persistent cross-links have significant changes accompanied by the alteration of intestinal flora in feces in models of constipation and pretreatment with Rhubarb extract.
Several amino acids can stimulate milk synthesis in mammary epithelial cells (MEC); however, the regulatory role of isoleucine (Ile) and underlying molecular mechanism remain poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the regulatory effects of Ile on milk protein and fat synthesis in MEC and reveal the mediation mechanism of Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1) on this regulation. Ile dose dependently affected milk protein and fat synthesis, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) phosphorylation, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) expression and maturation, and BRG1 protein expression in bovine MEC. Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibition by LY294002 treatment blocked the stimulation of Ile on BRG1 expression. BRG1 knockdown and gene activation experiments showed that it mediated the stimulation of Ile on milk protein and fat synthesis, mTOR phosphorylation, and SREBP-1c expression and maturation in MEC. ChIP-PCR analysis detected that BRG1 bound to the promoters of mTOR and SREBP-1c, and ChIP-qPCR further detected that these bindings were increased by Ile stimulation. In addition, BRG1 positively regulated the binding of H3K27ac to these two promoters, while it negatively affected the binding of H3K27me3 to these promoters. BRG1 knockdown blocked the stimulation of Ile on these two gene expressions. The expression of BRG1 was higher in mouse mammary gland in the lactating period, compared with that in the puberty or dry period. Taken together, these experimental data reveal that Ile stimulates milk protein and fat synthesis in MEC via the PI3K-BRG1-mTOR/SREBP-1c pathway.
To explore motivations, self-regulation barriers and strategies in a multi-ethnic Southeast Asian population with overweight and obesity.
Qualitative design using semi-structured face-to-face and videoconferencing interviews. Data were analysed using thematic framework analysis and constant comparison method.
Specialist weight management clinic.
Twenty-two participants were purposively sampled from 13 April to 30 April 2021. Median age and BMI of the participants were 37·5 (interquartile range (IQR) = 13·3) and 39·2 kg/m2 (IQR = 6·1), respectively. And 31·8 % were men, majority had a high intention to adopt healthy eating behaviours (median = 6·5; IQR = 4·8–6·3) and 59 % of the participants had a medium level of self-regulation.
Six themes and fifteen subthemes were derived. Participants were motivated to lose weight by the sense of responsibility as the family’s pillar of support and to feel ‘normal’ again. We coupled self-regulation barriers with corresponding strategies to come up with four broad themes: habitual overconsumption – mindful self-discipline; proximity and convenience of food available – mental tenacity; momentary lack of motivation and sense of control – motivational boosters; and overeating triggers – removing triggers. We highlighted six unique overeating triggers namely: trigger activities (e.g. using social media); eating with family, friends and colleagues; provision of food by someone; emotions (e.g. feeling bored at home, sad and stressed); physiological condition (e.g. premenstrual syndrome); and the time of the day.
Future weight management interventions should consider encompassing participant-led weight loss planning, motivation boosters and self-regulation skills to cope with momentary overeating triggers.
Excitation–emission-spectral unmixing-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (ExEm-spFRET) microscopy exhibits excellent robustness in living cells. We here develop an automatic ExEm-spFRET microscope with 3.04 s of time resolution for a quantitative FRET imaging. The user-friendly interface software has been designed to operate in two modes: administrator and user. Automatic background recognition, subtraction, and cell segmentation were integrated into the software, which enables FRET calibration or measurement in a one-click operation manner. In administrator mode, both correction factors and spectral fingerprints are only calibrated periodically for a stable system. In user mode, quantitative ExEm-spFRET imaging is directly implemented for FRET samples. We implemented quantitative ExEm-spFRET imaging for living cells expressing different tandem constructs (C80Y, C40Y, C10Y, and C4Y, respectively) and obtained consistent results for at least 3 months, demonstrating the stability of our microscope. Next, we investigated Bcl-xL-Bad interaction by using ExEm-spFRET imaging and FRET two-hybrid assay and found that the Bcl-xL-Bad complexes exist mainly in Bad-Bcl-xL trimers in healthy cells and Bad-Bcl-xL2 trimers in apoptotic cells. We also performed time-lapse FRET imaging on our system for living cells expressing Yellow Cameleon 3.6 (YC3.6) to monitor ionomycin-induced rapid extracellular Ca2+ influx with a time interval of 5 s for total 250 s.
This research communication aims to characterize the prevalence, molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance profiling of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from clinical mastitis in China. A total of 140 Strep. agalactiae isolates were identified from 12 out of 201 farms in 6 provinces, overall herd prevalence was 18.6% and the MLST analysis showed clonal complexes (CC) 103 and CC 67 were present in these herds with CC 103 predominant, accounting for 97.9%. Isolates were mostly sensitive to the tested antimicrobials: penicillin, ceftiofur, amoxi/clav, cefquinome, and vancomycin (100%), followed by cefalexin (97.9%), oxacillin (96.4%), enrofloxacin (95.7%), erythromycin (89.3%), and clindamycin (88.6%). Only 19.3 and 0.7% of isolates were sensitive to tetracycline and daptomycin, respectively, and sequence type (ST) 103 was most resistant to antimicrobials. In conclusion, CC 103 was the predominant subgroup of bovine mastitis Strep. agalactiae in China, and most antimicrobials apart from tetracycline and daptomycin were effective.
As part of a long-term experiment to determine the impacts of composted manure and straw amendments (replacing 50% of chemical fertilizer with composted pig manure, wheat straw return combined with chemical fertilizer, and setting no fertilizer and chemical fertilizer-only as controls) on rice-associated weeds in a rice (Oryza sativa L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation system, species richness, abundance, density, and biomass of weeds were assessed during years 8 and 9. Fertilization decreased the species richness and total density of rice-associated weeds but increased their total biomass. The species richness and densities of broadleaf and sedge weeds decreased with fertilization, while species richness of grass weeds increased only with straw return and density was not significantly affected. The shoot biomass per square meter of grass and broadleaf weeds was significantly higher with fertilization treatments than with the no-fertilizer control, while that of sedge weeds declined with fertilizer application. With fertilization, the densities of monarch redstem (Ammannia baccifera L.) and smallflower umbrella sedge (Cyperus difformis L.) decreased, that of Chinese sprangletop [Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees] increased, and those of barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.] and monochoria [Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. f.) C. Presl ex Kunth] were not significantly affected. Ammannia baccifera was the most abundant weed species in all treatments. Whereas composted pig manure plus fertilizer resulted in higher density of A. baccifera and lower shoot biomass per plant than chemical fertilizer only, wheat straw return plus chemical fertilizer caused lower density and shoot biomass of A. baccifera. Therefore, it may be possible that fertilization strategies that suppress specific weeds could be used as improved weed management program components in rice production systems.
Accurate predetermination of the quantum yield ratio (QA/QD) and the extinction coefficient ratio (KA/KD) between acceptor and donor is a prerequisite for quantitative fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging. We here propose a method to measure KA/KD and QA/QD by measuring the excitation–emission spectra (ExEm-spectra) of one dish of cells expressing m (≥3) kinds of FRET constructs. The ExEm-spectra images are unmixed to obtain the weight maps of donor (WD), acceptor (WA), and acceptor sensitization (WS). For each cell, the frequency distribution plots of the WS/WD and WS/WA images are fitted by using a single-Gaussian function to obtain the peak values of WS/WD (SD) and WS/WA (SA). The statistical frequency-SD/SA plots from all cells are fitted by using a multi-Gaussian function to obtain the peak values of both SD and SA, and then the ranges of WS/WD (RSD) and WS/WA (RSA) for each FRET construct are predetermined. Based on the predetermined RSD and RSA values of FRET constructs, our method is capable of automatically classifying cells expressing different FRET constructs. Finally, the WS/WD–WA/WD plot from different kinds of cells is linearly fitted to obtain KA/KD and QA/QD values.
The location of the vertical segment of the facial nerve varies greatly among patients undergoing otological surgery. Its position relative to the incus determines facial recess width, which has implications for ease of cochlear implantation.
To investigate the variation in facial nerve depth, relative to the incus, on pre-operative computed tomography in patients undergoing cochlear implantation.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted of paediatric patients undergoing cochlear implantation at a tertiary referral centre. Distance between the incus short process and facial nerve, in the transverse (medial-lateral) dimension, was measured at six imaging slices, ranging from 1.25 to 7.25 mm below the tip of the incus short process.
Facial nerve depth relative to the incus short process demonstrated significant variability. Among all subjects and at all measurements taken inferior to the incus, the mean dimension between the facial nerve and the incus short process was 1.71 mm.
This paper presents a rapid, repeatable technique to assess the depth of the facial nerve vertical segment on pre-operative computed tomography, as measured relative to the tip of the incus short process. This allows the surgeon to anticipate facial recess width and round window access during cochlear implantation.
Methomyl is a widely used carbamate insecticide and environmental oestrogen that has adverse effects on the reproductive system. However, there have been no reports on the effect of methomyl on early embryos in mammals. In this study, we explored the effect of methomyl exposure on the quality of early embryonic development in mice and the possible mechanisms. During in vitro culture, different concentrations of methomyl (10, 20, 30 and 35 μM) were added to mouse zygote medium. The results showed that methomyl had an adverse effect on early embryonic development. Compared with the control group, the addition of 30 μM methomyl significantly reduced the rate of early embryo blastocyst formation. Methomyl exposure can increase oxidative stress and impair mitochondrial function, which may be the cause of blastocyst formation. In addition, we found that methomyl exposure promoted apoptosis and autophagy in mouse blastocysts. The toxic effect of methomyl on early embryos may be the result of oxidative stress induction. Taken together, our results indicate that methomyl can cause embryonic development defects in mice, thereby reducing the quality of early embryo development.
Since December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been discovered in Wuhan and spread rapidly across China and worldwide. Characteristics of infected patients are needed to get insight into the full spectrum of the disease.
Epidemiological and clinical information of 1738 diagnosed patients during February 7-26, 2020 in Wuhan Dongxihu Fangcang Hospital were analyzed. A total of 709 patients were followed up on symptom, mental health, isolation site, and medication after discharge.
There were 852 males and 886 females in the cohort. The average age of the patients was 48.8 y. A total of 79.98% of the patients were from Wuhan, Hubei Province. The most common initial symptoms were fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Among all the patients, 1463 had complications, with respiratory distress as the most common complication. The average duration of hospitalization was 15.95 ± 14.69 d. The most common postdischarge symptom is cough. After discharge, most patients were full of energy and chose hotel as their self-isolation site. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Chinese medicine No.2 prescription is the medication used most commonly by the patients after discharge.
The population is generally susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. After receiving aggressive treatment of combined Chinese and Western medicine, most patients had a good prognosis and mental health after discharge.
The aeolian loess-paleosol sequences in the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) are an excellent archive of variations in atmospheric circulation in the geological past. However, there is no consensus regarding the roles of the East Asian winter monsoon and westerly winds in transporting the dust responsible for loess deposition during glacial and interstadial periods. We conducted detailed measurements of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) on two parallel loess profiles covering the most recent 130 ka in the western CLP to determine paleowind directions. Results show that the magnetic lineations of the loess and paleosol units in both sections are significantly clustered along the northwest to southeast direction. These observations demonstrate that the prevailing wind system responsible for dust transport in the western CLP was the northwesterly winter monsoon, rather than the westerly winds. The AMS-derived dust-bearing wind direction was relatively stable during the last glacial and interglacial cycle in the western CLP, consistent with sedimentary and AMS evidence from the eastern CLP. Accordingly, it is reasonable to conclude that large areas of deserts and Gobi deserts areas located in the upwind direction were the dominant sources for the aeolian deposits of the Loess Plateau.
A study was conducted to identify whether composted manure and straw amendments (replacement of a portion of chemical fertilizer [50% of the total nitrogen application] with composted pig manure, and straw return [all straw from the previous rice crop] combined with chemical fertilizer) compared with no fertilization and chemical fertilizer only would change the dominant species of wheat-associated weeds as well as influence their growth and seed yield in a rice (Oryza sativa L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation system. The study was initiated in 2010, and the treatment effects on the species, density, plant height, shoot biomass, seed yield of dominant weeds, and wheat yields were assessed in 2017 and 2018. Fertilization significantly increased the height, density, and yield of wheat, as well as the shoot biomass of wheat-associated weeds, but decreased the weed species number. A total of 17 and 14 weed species were recorded in the experimental wheat fields in 2017 and 2018, respectively. The most dominant weed species were American sloughgrass [Beckmannia syzigachne (Steud.) Fernald] and catchweed bedstraw (Galium aparine L.), which made up more than 64% of the weed community in all treatments. When the chemical fertilizer application was amended with pig manure compost and straw return, the relative abundance of B. syzigachne significantly decreased, while the relative abundance of G. aparine significantly increased. The application of the chemical fertilizer-only treatment resulted in increases in the density, shoot biomass, and seed yield of B. syzigachne, while the composted manure and straw amendments applied together with chemical fertilizer led to significant increases in the density, shoot biomass, and seed yield of G. aparine. Consequently, further research on ways to promote greater cropping system diversity will be needed to prevent the selection of weed species that are adapted to a limited suite of crop management practices.
Since the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection in Wuhan City, China, pediatric cases have gradually increased. It is very important to prevent cross-infection in pediatric fever clinics, to identify children with fever in pediatric fever clinics, and to strengthen the management of pediatric fever clinics. According to prevention and control programs, we propose the guidance on the management of pediatric fever clinics during the nCoV pneumonia epidemic period, which outlines in detail how to optimize processes, prevent cross-infection, provide health protection, and prevent disinfection of medical staff. The present consideration statement summarizes current strategies on the pre-diagnosis, triage, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019-nCoV infection, which provides practical suggestions on strengthening the management of pediatric fever clinics during the nCoV pneumonia epidemic period.
This Research Reflection short review presents an overview of the effects of heat stress on dairy cattle udder health and discusses existing heat stress mitigation strategies for a better understanding and identification of appropriate abatement plans for future stress management. Due to high ambient temperatures with high relative humidity in summer, dairy cows respond by changes of physical, biochemical and biological pathways to neutralize heat stress resulting in decreased production performance and poorer immunity resulting in an increased incidence of intramammary infections (IMI) and a higher somatic cell count (SCC). In vitro studies on bovine polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) suggested that heat stress reduces the phagocytosis capacity and oxidative burst of PMN and alters the expression of apoptotic genes and miRNA which, together with having a negative effect on the immune system, may explain the increased susceptibility to IMI. Although there are limited data regarding the incidence rate of clinical mastitis in many countries or regions, knowledge of SCC at the cow or bulk tank level helps encourage farmers to improve herd health and to develop strategies for infection prevention and cure. Therefore, more research into bulk tank SCC and clinical mastitis rates is needed to explain the effect of heat stress on dairy cow udder health and functions that could be influenced by abatement plans.
To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (K-A-P) about food safety and nutrition in Chinese adults who were recruited to the online survey during the epidemic of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Participants were recruited by an online snowball sampling method. An electronic questionnaire was sent to our colleagues, students, friends, other professionals and their referrals helped us recruit more participants. The questionnaire included socio-demographic information, the attention paid to COVID-19, K-A-P about food safety and nutrition. Multiple and logistic regression analyses were used to explore related factors of K-A-P.
Totally, 2272 participants aged 24·09 ± 9·14 years, from twenty-seven provinces, autonomous districts or municipalities, with 18·3 % male and 83·4 % with a medical background.
The total possible knowledge score was 8·0, the average score was 5·2 ± 1·6 and 4·2 % obtained 8·0. The total possible attitudes score was 8·0, the average score was 6·5 ± 1·4 and 36·1 % obtained 8·0. The total possible food safety practices score was 5·0, the average score was 3·7 ± 1·0 and 20·7 % obtained 5·0. During this public emergency, 79·4 % participants changed diet habits, including increasing vegetables, fruit and water intake and reducing sugary drinks and snacks. Gender, age, educational and professional background, disease history, the attention paid to COVID-19 and related knowledge were associated with K-A-P.
There was room for the improvement of K-A-P in participants during this public health emergency and further strengthening education about food safety and nutrition is needed. Findings indicate that education should address biased or misleading information and promote nutritious food choices and safe food practices.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
To evaluate the upper airway morphology changes associated with ageing in adult Chinese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.
A total of 124 male patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnoea by overnight polysomnography, who underwent upper airway computed tomography, were enrolled. The linear dimensions, cross-sectional area and volume of the upper airway region and the surrounding bony frame were measured. The association between ageing and upper airway morphology was analysed.
Soft palate length, minimum cross-sectional area of the retroglossal region, lateral dimensions at the minimum cross-sectional area of the retropalatal and retroglossal regions, nasopharyngeal volume, and average cross-sectional area of the nasopharyngeal region were found to significantly increase with ageing in all patients, while the upper airway shape flattened with ageing. The volume of the retropalatal region increased with ageing among the patients with a body mass index of less than 24 kg/m2. The volume of parapharyngeal fat pad increased with ageing among patients with a body mass index greater than 28 kg/m2.
A number of dimensional, cross-sectional and volumetric parameters of the pharynx increased with age, indicating that non-anatomical factors may play a more important role in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnoea in aged patients.
The surface energy budget over the Antarctic sea ice from 8 April 2016 through 26 November 2016 are presented. From April to October, Sensible heat flux (SH) and subsurface conductive heat flux (G) were the heat source of surface while latent heat flux (LE) and net radiation flux (Rn) were the heat sink of surface. Our results showed larger downward SH (due to the warmer air in our site) and upward LE (due to the drier air and higher wind speed in our site) compared with SHEBA data. However, the values of SH in N-ICE2015 campaign, which located at a zone with stronger winds and more advection of heat in the Arctic, were comparable to our results under clear skies. The values of aerodynamic roughness length (z0m) and scalar roughness length for temperature (z0h), being 1.9 × 10−3 m and 3.7 × 10−5 m, were suggested in this study. It is found that snow melting might increase z0m. Our results also indicate that the value of log(z0h/z0m) was related to the stability of stratification. In addition, several representative parameterization schemes for z0h have been tested and a couple of schemes were found to make a better performance.
Repetitive sequence elements in proteins and nucleic acids are often signatures of adaptive or reprogrammable systems in nature. Known examples of these systems, such as transcriptional activator-like effectors (TALE) and CRISPR, have been harnessed as powerful molecular tools with a wide range of applications including genome editing. The continued expansion of genomic sequence databases raises the possibility of prospectively identifying new such systems by computational mining. By leveraging sequence repeats as an organizing principle, here we develop a systematic genome mining approach to explore new types of naturally adaptive systems, five of which are discussed in greater detail. These results highlight the existence of a diverse range of intriguing systems in nature that remain to be explored and also provide a framework for future discovery efforts.