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Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Malformed data-structures can lead to runtime errors such as arbitrary memory access or corruption. Despite this, reasoning over data-structure properties for low-level heap manipulating programs remains challenging. In this paper we present a constraint-based program analysis that checks data-structure integrity, w.r.t. given target data-structure properties, as the heap is manipulated by the program. Our approach is to automatically generate a solver for properties using the type definitions from the target program. The generated solver is implemented using a Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) extension of built-in heap, integer and equality solvers. A key property of our program analysis is that the target data-structure properties are shape neutral, i.e., the analysis does not check for properties relating to a given data-structure graph shape, such as doubly-linked-lists versus trees. Nevertheless, the analysis can detect errors in a wide range of data-structure manipulating programs, including those that use lists, trees, DAGs, graphs, etc. We present an implementation that uses the Satisfiability Modulo Constraint Handling Rules (SMCHR) system. Experimental results show that our approach works well for real-world C programs.
Early life environments interact with genotype to determine stable phenotypic outcomes. Here we examined the influence of a variant in the brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) gene (Val66Met), which underlies synaptic plasticity throughout the central nervous system, on the degree to which antenatal maternal anxiety associated with neonatal DNA methylation. We also examined the association between neonatal DNA methylation and brain substructure volume, as a function of BDNF genotype. Infant, but not maternal, BDNF genotype dramatically influences the association of antenatal anxiety on the epigenome at birth as well as that between the epigenome and neonatal brain structure. There was a greater impact of antenatal maternal anxiety on the DNA methylation of infants with the methionine (Met)/Met compared to both Met/valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes. There were significantly more cytosine–phosphate–guanine sites where methylation levels covaried with right amygdala volume among Met/Met compared with both Met/Val and Val/Val carriers. In contrast, more cytosine–phosphate–guanine sites covaried with left hippocampus volume in Val/Val infants compared with infants of the Met/Val or Met/Met genotype. Thus, antenatal Maternal Anxiety × BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism interactions at the level of the epigenome are reflected differently in the structure of the amygdala and the hippocampus. These findings suggest that BDNF genotype regulates the sensitivity of the methylome to early environment and that differential susceptibility to specific environmental conditions may be both tissue and function specific.
Mn-doped CeO2 electrolytes formulated as Ce1-xMnxO2-x (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.25) were prepared via soft chemical technique which involved co-precipitation of Mn2+ and Ce4+ using oxalic acid as the precipitant. The optimized pH for a stable incorporation of Mn dopant into ceria was found to be pH = 10. The solubility limit of MnO in the CeO2 fluorite lattice structure was suggested to be x = 0.20. The phase composition, morphology properties and elemental analysis of the oxalate and derived-powder was characterized using X-ray diffraction, SEM and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) respectively. The electrical conductivity of sintered samples of Mn-doped CeO2 ceramics were investigated in air using AC impedance spectroscopy. The bulk conductivities of the Mn-doped CeO2 ceramics sintered at 1200 °C at a test temperature of 800 °C were determined to be 4.223 x 10-4 ohm-1 cm-1 for Mn content x = 0.10 with activation energy, Ea = 0.88 eV.
An inherent prerequisite to mental health first-aid (MHFA) is the ability to identify that there is a mental health problem, but little is known about the association between psychiatric labelling and MHFA. This study examined this association using data from two national surveys of Australian young people.
This study involved a national telephonic survey of 3746 Australian youth aged 12–25 years in 2006, and a similar survey in 2011 with 3021 youth aged 15–25 years. In both surveys, respondents were presented with a vignette portraying depression, psychosis or social phobia in a young person. The 2011 survey also included depression with suicidal thoughts and post-traumatic stress disorder. Respondents were asked what they thought was wrong with the person, and reported on their first-aid intentions and beliefs, which were scored for quality of the responses.
Accurate labelling of the mental disorder was associated with more helpful first-aid intentions and beliefs across vignettes, except for the intention to listen non-judgementally in the psychosis vignette.
Findings suggest that community education programmes that improve accurate psychiatric label use may have the potential to improve the first-aid responses young people provide to their peers, although caution is required in the case of psychosis.
This study aims to determine the prevalence, profile, and severity of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) across the dementia continuum and their relative impact on caregiver distress and quality of life (QoL) in persons with dementia (PWD).
Six hundred and sixty-seven PWD and their family caregivers presented to a memory clinic in a tertiary hospital across a 60-month period. Clinicians determined the dementia diagnosis and severity using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition and the Clinical Dementia Rating scale, respectively. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire was administered to assess NPS in PWD and the corresponding distress experienced by the caregiver. QoL for PWD (PWD-QoL) was assessed by the Quality of Life–Alzheimer's Disease scale.
Ninety-six percent of PWD presented with at least one NPS, 18% experiencing mild, 31% moderate, and 47% severe symptoms, respectively. While agitation (63.1%), apathy (61.8%), depression (55.5%), and irritability (55.5%) were the most common NPS; disinhibition (35.2%), hallucination (25.5%), and elation (14.2%) were the least common. NPS increased generally but differentially as dementia progressed and significantly predicted caregiver distress (ηp2 = 0.732, p < 0.0001) and PWD-QoL (ηp2 = 0.066, p < 0.0001). Factor analysis revealed two NPS clusters, disruptive and affective; the former exerting greater impact on caregiver distress and the latter on PWD-QoL.
The results show a high prevalence of NPS which increase caregiver distress and negatively impact PWD-QoL. The differential profile of NPS across the dementia stages warrants stage-specific interventions and due consideration in resource planning and service design for PWD and their caregivers.
Emerging evidence suggests that psychiatric labels may facilitate help seeking in young people. This study examined whether young people's use of accurate labels for five disorders would predict their help-seeking preferences.
Young people's help-seeking intentions were assessed by a national telephone survey of 3021 Australian youths aged 15–25. Respondents were presented with a vignette of a young person portraying depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, psychosis, social phobia or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They were then asked what they thought was wrong with the person, and where they would go for help if they had a similar problem.
Accurate psychiatric label use was associated with a preference to seek help from a general practitioner or mental health specialist. Accurately labelling the psychosis vignette was also associated with a preference to not seek help from family or friends.
Findings add to the emerging evidence that accurate psychiatric labelling may facilitate help seeking for various mental disorders in young people, and support the promise of community awareness campaigns designed to improve young people's ability to accurately identify mental disorders.
A novel technique combining both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to test the mechanical properties of densely-packed graphene oxide (GO) paper. Individual beams of GO paper with variable widths were prepared using focussed ion beam (FIB) microscopy and tensile tested to failure using the AFM while observing with SEM. A variation in the tensile strength of the GO paper beams up to 64.8 MPa was recorded in the vacuum testing condition. An increase in breaking stress of GO paper with decreasing sample width was determined and proposed as being due to fewer defects present in GO beams of smaller width.
Uncertainty about future energy and water supplies suggests a pressing need to develop efficient technologies for water desalination. Capacitive deionization (CDI), a method that captures ions in the electrical double layer (EDL) of an electrochemical capacitor, is a promising technology that can potentially fulfill those requirements. Similar to supercapacitors, ideal CDI electrodes should have a large electrolyte-accessible specific surface area available for ion adsorption with rapid charging/discharging characteristics. Unlike supercapacitors, CDI electrodes are required to operate in aqueous electrolytes with low ionic concentrations in a non-linear charging regime. To explore this practically and theoretically important regime, we developed robust, electrochemically-compatible carbon nanotube (CNT) carpet electrodes that posses a well-defined and uniform pore structure that is more readily analyzed in comparison to the random and multi-scale pore structure of typical carbon electrodes. The fabricated electrodes were characterized using cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic charging in aqueous NaCl solutions (no = 20 - 90 mM) using a three electrode setup. Examination of the CV and potentiostatically-measured capacitances were consistent with EDL behavior dictated by the Stern layer. However, some deviations from the expected behavior were observed with increasing salt concentration during potentiostatic testing.
A new type of cathode for electron field emission (FE) was fabricated. The cathode was made from ultra-thin multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) sheets. These sheets were drawn directly from a CNT forest, stacked layer-by-layer together and densified by isopropyl alcohol. CNT emitters were formed by utilizing laser beam to cut the sheet. The FE performance of the proposed devices has been enhanced dramatically. The threshold field for electron emission (at which the emission current is 10 mA/cm2) was 0.88 V/μm. The current density of 36 A/cm2 was achieved at the electric field of 2 V/μm. The enhanced performance is the result of the thin, uniformly distributed and aligned array of the CNT emitters.
The metal-catalyst-free growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using chemical vapor deposition and the application in field-effect transistors (FETs) is presented. The CNT growth process used a 3-nm-thick Ge layer on SiO2 that was subsequently annealed to produce Ge nanoparticles. Raman measurements show the presence of radial breathing mode (RBM) peaks and the absence of the disorder induced D-band, indicating single walled CNTs (SWNTs) with a low defect density. The synthesized CNTs are used to fabricate CNTFETs and the best device has a state-of-the-art on/off current ratio of 3×108 and a steep sub-threshold slope of 110 mV/decade.
Although mental health information on the internet is often of poor quality, relatively little is known about the quality of websites, such as Wikipedia, that involve participatory information sharing. The aim of this paper was to explore the quality of user-contributed mental health-related information on Wikipedia and compare this with centrally controlled information sources.
Content on 10 mental health-related topics was extracted from 14 frequently accessed websites (including Wikipedia) providing information about depression and schizophrenia, Encyclopaedia Britannica, and a psychiatry textbook. The content was rated by experts according to the following criteria: accuracy, up-to-dateness, breadth of coverage, referencing and readability.
Ratings varied significantly between resources according to topic. Across all topics, Wikipedia was the most highly rated in all domains except readability.
The quality of information on depression and schizophrenia on Wikipedia is generally as good as, or better than, that provided by centrally controlled websites, Encyclopaedia Britannica and a psychiatry textbook.
Functional constraints and bi-functional constraints are an important constraint class in Constraint Programming (CP) systems, in particular for Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) systems. CP systems with finite domain constraints usually employ Constraint Satisfaction Problem(s)-based solvers which use local consistency, for example, arc consistency. We introduce a new approach which is based instead on variable substitution. We obtain efficient algorithms for reducing systems involving functional and bi-functional constraints together with other nonfunctional constraints. It also solves globally any CSP where there exists a variable such that any other variable is reachable from it through a sequence of functional constraints. Our experiments on random problems show that variable elimination can significantly improve the efficiency of solving problems with functional constraints.
It has been suggested that biological factors confer increased sensitivity to environmental influences on depressive symptoms during adolescence, a crucial time for the onset of depressive disorders. Given the critical role of the hippocampus in sensitivity to stress and processing of contextual aspects of the environment, investigation of its role in determining sensitivity to environmental context seems warranted. This study prospectively examined hippocampal volume as a measure of sensitivity to the influence of aggressive maternal behavior on change in depressive symptoms from early to midadolescence. The interaction between aggressive maternal behavior and hippocampal volume was found to predict change in depressive symptoms. Significant sex differences also emerged, whereby only for girls were larger bilateral hippocampal volumes more sensitive to the effects of maternal aggressive behavior, particularly with respect to experiencing the protective effects of low levels of maternal aggressiveness. These findings help elucidate the complex relationships between brain structure, environmental factors such as maternal parenting style, and sensitivity to (i.e., risk for, and protection from) the emergence of depression during this life stage. Given that family context risk factors are modifiable, our findings suggest the potential utility of targeted parenting interventions for the prevention and treatment of adolescent depressive disorder.
This study examined the relations among temperament, emotion regulation, and depressive symptoms in early adolescents. Early adolescents provided self-reports of temperament on two occasions, as well as reports on emotion regulation and depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, 163 of these adolescents participated in event-planning and problem-solving interactions with their mothers. Adolescents with temperaments that were high in negative emotionality or low in effortful control displayed more emotionally dysregulated behaviors during the interaction tasks, reported having maladaptive responses to negative affect more often and adaptive responses less often, and had more depressive symptoms. In particular, adolescents with the high negative emotionality and low effortful control temperament combination reported the highest levels of depressive symptomatology. Sequential analyses of family interactions indicated that adolescents with more depressive symptoms were more likely to reciprocate their mothers' negative affective behaviors. Adolescents' adaptive and maladaptive responses to negative affect mediated the associations between their temperament and concurrent depressive symptoms.
The indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test using sensitized turkey erythrocytes and the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IgM-IFA) was confirmed to be sensitive in the detection of a recent or current Pseudomonas pseudomallei infection in 19 culture-confirmed Singapore melioidosis patients. All were found to have antibody titres from 4 to 32 768 in the IHA test and 10 to 320 in the IgM-IFA test. When these tests were employed on sera from 16 immigrant Thai construction workers who died of sudden unexplained death syndrome (SUDS) and 73 healthy Thai fellow workers, 93·8% and 68·8% of SUDS cases had IHA titre of ≥ 4 and IgM-IFA titre of ≥ 10 respectively, in contrast to 39·7% and 12·3% found among healthy Thai workers. These data indicate that at the time of death, most of the SUDS patients had an active infection with P. pseudomallei, possibly resulting from reactivation of a latent infection. The aetiological role of P. pseudomallei as the major cause of SUDS is discussed.