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In children and adolescents, multiple sclerosis (MS) has an impact on the developing central nervous system, and can result in transient or fixed deficits of gross motor and/or fine motor skills, sensory perceptual processing, bowel/bladder function, vision, balance, and coordination. In this chapter, the evaluation and care of patients with symptoms of pediatric demyelinating disease are addressed as individual systems with discussion of anatomy and typical features, evaluation measures, and treatment options, including both non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches. Fatigue is the most common symptom experienced by MS patients and is adversely correlated with quality of life. Minimizing fatigue in the pediatric MS population requires a multifaceted approach of eliminating unnecessary energy demands, improving sleep hygiene and optimizing symptomatic medication and disease-modifying treatment (DMT) regimens. The PedsSQ Multidimensional Fatigue Scale has been validated and used in other pediatric chronic diseases such as cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatological diseases.
To assess the prevalence and clinical impact of co-morbid social anxiety disorder (SAD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD, i.e. alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence) in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States.
Data came from a large representative sample of the US population. Face-to-face interviews of 43093 adults residing in households were conducted during 2001–2002. Diagnoses of mood, anxiety, alcohol and drug use disorders and personality disorders were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule – DSM-IV version.
Lifetime prevalence of co-morbid AUD and SAD in the general population was 2.4%. SAD was associated with significantly increased rates of alcohol dependence [odds ratio (OR) 2.8] and alcohol abuse (OR 1.2). Among respondents with alcohol dependence, SAD was associated with significantly more mood, anxiety, psychotic and personality disorders. Among respondents with SAD, alcohol dependence and abuse were most strongly associated with more substance use disorders, pathological gambling and antisocial personality disorders. SAD occurred before alcohol dependence in 79.7% of co-morbid cases, but co-morbidity status did not influence age of onset for either disorder. Co-morbid SAD was associated with increased severity of alcohol dependence and abuse. Respondents with co-morbid SAD and alcohol dependence or abuse reported low rates of treatment-seeking.
Co-morbid lifetime AUD and SAD is a prevalent dual diagnosis, associated with substantial rates of additional co-morbidity, but remaining largely untreated. Future research should clarify the etiology of this co-morbid presentation to better identify effective means of intervention.
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