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This document introduces and explains common implementation concepts and frameworks relevant to healthcare epidemiology and infection prevention and control and can serve as a stand-alone guide or be paired with the “SHEA/IDSA/APIC Compendium of Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections in Acute Care Hospitals: 2022 Updates,” which contain technical implementation guidance for specific healthcare-associated infections. This Compendium article focuses on broad behavioral and socio-adaptive concepts and suggests ways that infection prevention and control teams, healthcare epidemiologists, infection preventionists, and specialty groups may utilize them to deliver high-quality care. Implementation concepts, frameworks, and models can help bridge the “knowing-doing” gap, a term used to describe why practices in healthcare may diverge from those recommended according to evidence. It aims to guide the reader to think about implementation and to find resources suited for a specific setting and circumstances by describing strategies for implementation, including determinants and measurement, as well as the conceptual models and frameworks: 4Es, Behavior Change Wheel, CUSP, European and Mixed Methods, Getting to Outcomes, Model for Improvement, RE-AIM, REP, and Theoretical Domains.
To assess the proportion of inpatients who received guideline-concordant antibiotics for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) in special populations of the All of Us database.
CABP contributes significantly to healthcare burden worldwide. The American Thoracic Society and Infectious Disease Society of America jointly published guidelines for the treatment of CABP. Guideline-concordant antibiotics for CABP are associated with better patient and cost outcomes.
This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with pneumonia (n = 1608; SNOMED 233604007) from 10/1/2018 to 1/01/22 in the All of Us database. Cases were excluded for treatment setting other than inpatient, prior (within 90 days) pneumonia, receipt of intravenous antibiotics, respiratory isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and/or other non-community-acquired types of pneumonia. Patients were grouped based on patient age, sex, race, and ethnicity. The proportion of patients on guideline-concordant therapy was compared within groups using chi-square statistics. Significant associations were assessed using multivariate logistic regression models.
A total of 1608 cases were included, and 45% of these patients received guideline-concordant antibiotics. Non-Hispanic White (NHW) patients vs. Black patients were associated with a 36% higher likelihood for receiving guideline-concordant antibiotics (adjusted OR, 1.36; 95% CI 1.02–1.81), whereas NHW vs. Hispanic patients were associated with a 34% lower likelihood for receiving guideline-concordant antibiotics (aOR 0.66; 0.48–0.91).
Black patients with CABP in the All of Us database were less likely to receive guideline-concordant antibiotics, and Hispanic patients were more likely to receive guideline-concordant antibiotics, than NHW patients.
To characterize antifungal prescribing patterns, including the indication for antifungal use, in hospitalized children across the United States.
We analyzed antifungal prescribing data from 32 hospitals that participated in the SHARPS Antibiotic Resistance, Prescribing, and Efficacy among Children (SHARPEC) study, a cross-sectional point-prevalence survey conducted between June 2016 and December 2017.
Inpatients aged <18 years with an active systemic antifungal order were included in the analysis. We classified antifungal prescribing by indication (ie, prophylaxis, empiric, targeted), and we compared the proportion of patients in each category based on patient and antifungal characteristics.
Among 34,927 surveyed patients, 2,095 (6%) received at least 1 systemic antifungal and there were 2,207 antifungal prescriptions. Most patients had an underlying oncology or bone marrow transplant diagnosis (57%) or were premature (13%). The most prescribed antifungal was fluconazole (48%) and the most common indication for antifungal use was prophylaxis (64%). Of 2,095 patients receiving antifungals, 79 (4%) were prescribed >1 antifungal, most often as targeted therapy (48%). The antifungal prescribing rate ranged from 13.6 to 131.2 antifungals per 1,000 patients across hospitals (P < .001).
Most antifungal use in hospitalized children was for prophylaxis, and the rate of antifungal prescribing varied significantly across hospitals. Potential targets for antifungal stewardship efforts include high-risk, high-utilization populations, such as oncology and bone marrow transplant patients, and specific patterns of utilization, including prophylactic and combination antifungal therapy.
Among 287 US hospitals reporting data between 2015 and 2018, annual pediatric surgical site infection (SSI) rates ranged from 0% for gallbladder to 10.4% for colon surgeries. Colon, spinal fusion, and small-bowel SSI rates did not decrease with greater surgical volumes in contrast to appendix and ventricular-shunt SSI rates.
The purpose of this document is to highlight practical recommendations to assist acute care hospitals to prioritize and implement strategies to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), ventilator-associated events (VAE), and non-ventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia (NV-HAP) in adults, children, and neonates. This document updates the Strategies to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Acute Care Hospitals published in 2014. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology (SHEA), and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Hospital Association, the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise.
Vaccination coverage for infants with CHD is unknown, yet these patients are at high risk for morbidity and mortality associated with vaccine-preventable illnesses. We determined vaccination rates for this population and identified predictors of undervaccination. We prospectively enrolled infants with CHD born between 1 January, 2012 and 31 December, 2015, seen in a single-centre cardiology clinic between 15 February, 2016 and 28 February, 2017. We assessed vaccination during the first year of life. Subjects who by age 1 year received all routine immunisations recommended during the first 6 months of life were considered fully vaccinated. We also evaluated influenza vaccination during subjects’ first eligible influenza season. We obtained immunisation histories from primary care providers and collected demographic and clinical data via a parent survey and chart review. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify predictors of undervaccination. Among 260 subjects, only 60% were fully vaccinated. Vaccination rates were lowest for influenza (64.6%), rotavirus (71.1%), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (79.3%). Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass during the first year of life was associated with undervaccination (51.5% versus 76.4% fully vaccinated, adjusted odds ratio 2.1 [95% confidence interval 1.1–3.9]). Other predictors of undervaccination were out-of-state primary care (adjusted odds ratio 2.7 [1.5–4.9]), multiple comorbidities (≥2 versus 0–1, adjusted odds ratio 2.0 [1.1–3.6]), and hospitalisation for >25% of the first year of life (>25% versus ≤25%, adjusted odds ratio 2.1 [1.1–3.9]). Targeted quality improvement initiatives focused on improving vaccination coverage for these infants, especially surrounding cardiac surgery, are needed.
Eggs contain important compounds related to enhanced cognition, but it is not clear if egg consumption, as a whole, has a direct impact on memory decline in older adults. This study aimed to determine whether egg intake levels predict the rate of memory decline in healthy older adults after sociodemographic and dietary controls. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from 470 participants, age 50 and over, from the Biospsychosocial Religion and Health Study. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, which was used to calculate egg intake and divide participants into Low (<23 g/week, about half an egg), Intermediate (24–63 g/week, half to 1½ eggs) and High (≥63 g/week, about two or more eggs) tertiles. Participants were administered the California Verbal Learning Test – 2nd Edition (CVLT-II) Short Form in 2006–2007, and 294 of them were again tested in 2010–2011. Using linear mixed model analysis, no significant cross-sectional differences were observed in CVLT-II performance between egg intake levels after controlling for age, sex, race, education, body mass index, cardiovascular risk, depression and intake of meat, fish, dairy and fruits/vegetables. Longitudinally, the Intermediate egg group exhibited significantly slower rates of decline on the CVLT-II compared to the Low egg group. The High egg group also exhibited slower rates of decline, but not statistically significant. Thus, limited consumption of eggs (about 1 egg/week) was associated with slower memory decline in late life compared to consuming little to no eggs, but a dose-response effect was not clearly evident. This study may help explain discrepancies in previous research that did not control for other dietary intakes and risk factors.
Singapore is prominent in the global trade of pet birds, primarily parrots. This includes its role as a key international transit hub, and also its growing domestic market, including for threatened species. There is a need to understand the trade beyond volumes and flows, including consumer knowledge, preferences and behaviours, and interactions with vendors, hobbyist groups and supporting industries. We used three methods to examine this: (1) a questionnaire with stakeholders (including parrot owners, hobbyist group members, breeders and supporting industry professionals), about the motivations for parrot ownership and interest in sustainable trade, (2) semi-structured interviews with key informants about trade dynamics, and (3) a review of online hobbyist groups. Based on our findings, we provide an initial mapping of the country's parrot trade ecosystem. Fifty-one per cent of respondents claimed to be a member of a parrot hobbyist group and 64% agreed their participation in such groups had encouraged them to purchase more parrots. The majority (71%) of parrot owners reported a preference for captive-bred rather than wild-caught parrots, and 72% were concerned about the illegal hunting of parrots for commercial trade. Most were willing to pay more (70%) and wait longer (73%) to procure a sustainably sourced parrot. Our approach presents the wildlife trade as a complex social phenomenon, with multiple physical and online channels, regulatory challenges, social networks, and evolving consumer preferences. We also document the pivotal role of hobbyist groups and their untapped potential to leverage these networks to improve sustainable trade.
Hong Kong is an intermediate tuberculosis (TB) burden city in Asia Pacific with slow decline of case notification in the last decade. By 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units – variable number of tandem repeats genotyping, we examined 534 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates collected from culture-positive hospitalised TB patients in a 1.7 million population geographic region in the city. Overall, 286 (75%) were classified as Beijing genotype, of which 216 (76%) and 59 (21%) belonged to modern and ancient sub-lineage, respectively. Only two cases were genetically clustered while spatial clustering was absent. Male gender, permanent residency in Hong Kong and born in Hong Kong or Mainland China were associated with Beijing genotype. The high prevalence of Beijing modern lineage was similar to that in East Asia, which reflected the pattern resulting from population migration. The paucity of clustering suggested that reactivation accounted for most of the TB disease cases, which was and echoed by observation that half were 60 years old or above, and the presence of co-morbid medical conditions. The predominance of reactivation TB cases in intermediate burden localities implies that the detection and control of latent TB infection would be the major challenge in achieving TB elimination.
To develop a pediatric research agenda focused on pediatric healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial stewardship topics that will yield the highest impact on child health.
The study included 26 geographically diverse adult and pediatric infectious diseases clinicians with expertise in healthcare-associated infection prevention and/or antimicrobial stewardship (topic identification and ranking of priorities), as well as members of the Division of Healthcare Quality and Promotion at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (topic identification).
Using a modified Delphi approach, expert recommendations were generated through an iterative process for identifying pediatric research priorities in healthcare associated infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship. The multistep, 7-month process included a literature review, interactive teleconferences, web-based surveys, and 2 in-person meetings.
A final list of 12 high-priority research topics were generated in the 2 domains. High-priority healthcare-associated infection topics included judicious testing for Clostridioides difficile infection, chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing, measuring and preventing hospital-onset bloodstream infection rates, surgical site infection prevention, surveillance and prevention of multidrug resistant gram-negative rod infections. Antimicrobial stewardship topics included β-lactam allergy de-labeling, judicious use of perioperative antibiotics, intravenous to oral conversion of antimicrobial therapy, developing a patient-level “harm index” for antibiotic exposure, and benchmarking and or peer comparison of antibiotic use for common inpatient conditions.
We identified 6 healthcare-associated infection topics and 6 antimicrobial stewardship topics as potentially high-impact targets for pediatric research.
Background: Greater than 10% of hospitalized MRSA carriers experience serious MRSA infection in the year following discharge. Prevention opportunities have primarily focused on hospital stays; however postdischarge interventions have the potential to reduce morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. The CLEAR trial found a 30% hazard reduction in postdischarge MRSA infections among patients who had inpatient MRSA cultures and were given postdischarge decolonization (5 days twice-a-month for 6 months) relative to hygiene education alone. We conducted a cost analysis of the CLEAR intervention to quantify the economic implications and understand the value of adopting this MRSA decolonization strategy. Methods: We constructed a decision model to estimate the one-year healthcare utilization and costs associated with postdischarge decolonization relative to hygiene education. Trial results for MRSA infection risk and downstream outcomes (including outpatient and emergency room visits, hospitalizations, related nursing home stays, and postdischarge antibiotics) were used to parameterize the model. Other medical care and prescription drug costs were based on Medicare Fee Schedules, Red Book and the literature. Patient out-of-pocket costs and time costs associated with subsequent infections were from a survey of trial participants experiencing infection (n=405). All costs were reported in 2019 US dollars. The analysis was conducted using healthcare system and societal perspectives. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on key parameters. Results: Among a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 hospitalized MRSA carriers, we estimated that a postdischarge decolonization intervention versus hygiene education would result in at least 36 fewer subsequent MRSA infections (130 vs 93 of 1,000, respectively) and >40 fewer MRSA-attributable healthcare events including 32 hospitalizations and 6 postdischarge nursing home visits over the course of a year. Assuming an intervention cost of $185 per individual, the program would result in an overall cost savings of $469,000 per 1,000 MRSA carriers undergoing decolonization. This translates to an overall savings of $13,200 per infection averted and $9,000 per infection averted from the healthcare system perspective. Even assuming a lower infection rate or a less effective intervention (15% reduction in infections vs 30% in the CLEAR trial), or a more expensive (up to $653 per patient) intervention, a decolonization program would still result in cost-savings for society, the healthcare system and patients. Conclusions: In addition to health benefits of preventing infections, postdischarge decolonization of MRSA carriers yields substantial savings to society and the healthcare system. Future recommendations for reducing postdischarge MRSA-related disease among MRSA carriers should consider routine decolonization at hospital discharge.
Funding: This study was supported by a grant from the AHRQ Healthcare-Associated Infections Program (R01HS019388) and by the University of California Irvine Institute for Clinical and Translational Science, which was funded by a grant from the NIH Clinical and Translational Sciences Award program (UL1 TR000153).
Disclosures: Dr. Huang reports conducting clinical studies in which participating nursing homes and hospitals received donated products from Stryker (Sage Products), Mölnlycke, 3M, Clorox, Xttrium Laboratories, and Medline. Ms. Singh reports conducting clinical studies in which participating nursing homes and hospitals received donated products from Stryker (Sage Products), 3M, Clorox, Xttrium Laboratories, and Medline. Dr. Rashid, conducting clinical studies in which participating nursing homes and hospitals received donated products from Stryker(Sage Products), Clorox, and Medline. Dr. McKinnell reports receiving grant support to his institution from Melinta Therapeutics, and fees for serving as a research investigator from Lightship, conducting clinical studies in which participating nursing homes and hospitals received donated products from Stryker (Sage Products), 3M, Clorox, Xttrium Laboratories and Medline, and serving as cofounder of Expert Stewardship. Dr. Miller reports receiving grant support from Gilead Sciences, Merck, Abbott, Cepheid, Genentech, Atox Bio, and Paratek Pharmaceuticals, grant support and fees for serving on an advisory board from Achaogen and grant support, consulting fees, and fees for serving on an advisory board from Tetraphase and conducting clinical studies in which participating nursing homes and hospitals received donated products from Stryker (Sage Products), 3M, Clorox, Xttrium Laboratories, and Medline.
Background: The Hospital-Acquired Conditions Reduction Program (HACRP) and Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (HVBP) are federal value-based incentive programs that financially reward or penalize hospitals based on quality metrics. Hospital-onset C. difficile infection (HO-CDI) rates reported to the CDC NHSN became a target quality metric for both HACRP and HVBP in October 2016, but the impact of these programs on HO-CDI rates is unknown. Methods: We used an interrupted time-series design to examine the association between HACRP/HVBP implementation in October 2016 and quarterly rates of HO-CDI per 10,000 patient days among incentive-eligible acute-care hospitals conducting facility-wide HO-CDI NHSN surveillance between January 2013 and March 2019. Generalized estimating equations were used to fit negative binomial regression models to assess for immediate program impact (ie, level change) and changes in the slope of HO-CDI rates, controlling for each hospital’s predominant method for CDI testing (nucleic acid amplification including PCR (NAAT), enzyme immunoassay for toxin (EIA), or other testing method including cell cytotoxicity neutralization assay and toxigenic culture). Results: Of the 265 study hospitals studied, most were medium-sized (100–399 beds, 55%), not-for-profit (77%), teaching hospitals (70%), and were located in a metropolitan area (87%). Compared to EIA, rates of HO-CDI were higher when detected by NAAT (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.55; 95% CI, 1.41–1.70) or other testing methods (IRR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.26–1.71). Controlling for CDI testing methods, HACRP/HVBP implementation was associated with an immediate 6% decline in HO-CDI rates (IRR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89–0.99) and a 4% decline in slope per year-quarter thereafter (IRR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.95–0.97) (Fig. 1). Conclusions: HACRP/HVBP implementation was associated with both immediate and gradual improvements in HO-CDI rates, independent of CDI testing methods of differing sensitivity. Future research may evaluate the precise mechanisms underlying this improvement and if this impact is sustained in the long term.
To characterize the current state of antifungal stewardship practices and perceptions of antifungal use among pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs).
We developed and distributed an electronic survey, which included 17 closed-ended questions about institutional antifungal stewardship practices and perceptions, among pediatric ASPs.
ASP physicians and pharmacists of 74 hospitals participating in the multicenter Sharing Antimicrobial Reports for Pediatric Stewardship (SHARPS) Collaborative.
We sent surveys to 74 hospitals and received 68 unique responses, for a response rate of 92%. Overall, 63 of 68 the respondent ASPs (93%) reported that they conduct 1 or more antifungal stewardship activities. Of these 68 hospital ASPs, 43 (63%) perform prospective audit and feedback (PAF) of antifungals. The most common reasons reported for not performing PAF of antifungals were not enough time or resources (19 of 25, 76%) and minimal institutional antifungal use (6 of 25, 24%). Also, 52 hospitals (76%) require preauthorization for 1 or more antifungal agents. The most commonly restricted antifungals were isavuconazole (42 of 52 hospitals, 80%) and posaconazole (39 of 52 hospitals, 75%). Furthermore, 33 ASPs (48%) agreed or strongly agreed that antifungals are inappropriately used at their institution, and only 25 of 68 (37%) of ASPs felt very confident making recommendations about antifungals.
Most pediatric ASPs steward antifungals, but the strategies employed are highly variable across surveyed institutions. Although nearly half of respondents identified inappropriate antifungal use as a problem at their institution, most ASPs do not feel confident making recommendations about antifungals. Future studies are needed to determine the rate of inappropriate antifungal use and the best antifungal stewardship strategies.
Although we commonly work with patients with emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD) in community mental health teams (CMHTs), only some enter evidence-based psychological therapies. Many patients are not considered ready to engage in specialist treatments and remain in CMHTs without any clear focus or structure to their treatment, which is unsatisfactory for patients, clinicians and services. We present a fictional case and synthesise available literature and lived experience to explore readiness and ways to promote it. We highlight relevant issues for trainees to consider in practice. Patients with EUPD who have not received specialist treatment can be considered in terms of the transtheoretical model's stages of change. Identifying a patient's stage can help guide how to increase readiness for referral and decide when to refer. Interventions available to all healthcare professionals which may promote readiness include: psychoeducation, personal formulations, crisis planning, goal-setting, peer support, distress tolerance skills, motivational interviewing and mindfulness.
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections in 592 hospitals immediately declined after federal value-based incentive program implementation, but this was fully attributable to a concurrent surveillance case definition revision. Post revision, more hospitals had favorable standardized infection ratios, likely leading to artificial inflation of their performance scores unrelated to changes in patient safety.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Previous studies suggest that genetic variants in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) may alter oxytocin dose requirement for labor induction and may increase risk for preterm labor and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the mechanisms of actions of these variants remain unknown. The goal of this study was to functionally characterize common missense and noncoding variants in OXTR. First, we aimed to determine the effects of missense variants on two major aspects of receptor function: calcium signaling and β-arrestin recruitment. Second, we used allelic expression imbalance assays in an effort to identify regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in noncoding regions of OXTR that alter OXTR mRNA expression. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We used the Exome Aggregation Consortium database to identify the 12 most prevalent missense single nucleotide variants in OXTR. To determine the functional effects of these variants, we transfected human embryonic kidney cells (a common model system used to study receptor function) with wild type OXTR, variant OXTR, or empty vector control. We used the calcium-sensitive dye Fluo4 to quantify intracellular calcium flux in response to oxytocin treatment, and used bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays to measure recruitment of the signaling partner β-arrestin to the receptor. To investigate potential effects of noncoding SNPs on OXTR mRNA expression, we quantified allele-specific expression of OXTR in human uterine tissue obtained from participants at the time of Cesarean section. We used next-generation sequencing (Illumina MiSeq) to count alleles of a reporter SNP in OXTR exon 3. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of the 12 most prevalent missense single nucleotide variants, four were predicted to be deleterious by PolyPhen variant annotation software. We anticipate that these variants will alter receptor signaling through calcium or β-arrestin pathways. We further observed that a reporter SNP in OXTR exon 3 exhibits significant allelic expression imbalance in a subset of our myometrial tissue samples, indicating that OXTR expression may be regulated by a functional SNP. Our current work focuses on discovering the functional SNPs in OXTR responsible for the pattern of allelic expression imbalance seen in mRNA. In the future, we will seek to explore the effects of these variants on uterine function by using genome editing of uterine smooth muscle cells. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our results suggest that both missense and noncoding variants may affect OXTR expression and function. Future studies may suggest that OXTR sequencing, genotyping, or expression analysis would be useful to identify individuals likely to respond or fail to respond to safe doses of oxytocin for labor induction. Personalizing approaches for labor induction in this way would increase the safety of oxytocin and potentially reduce maternal morbidity and mortality.
National policies target healthcare-associated infections using medical claims and National Healthcare Safety Network surveillance data. We found low concordance between the 2 data sources in rates and rankings for surgical site infection following colon surgery in 155 hospitals, underscoring the limitations in evaluating hospital quality by claims data.