The purpose of this study was primarily to evaluate the association of total fibre intake with the risk of incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). We also evaluated the association of dietary fibre from fruits, vegetables, cereals and legumes with the incidence of CKD in a population-based prospective study. We followed up 1630 participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study for 6·1 years, who were initially free of CKD. Baseline diet was assessed by a valid and reliable FFQ. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated, using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation, and CKD was defined as eGFR <60 ml/min per 1·73 m2. OR using multivariable logistic regression was reported for the association of incident CKD with tertiles of dietary fibre intake. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, total energy intake, physical activity, diabetes and using angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, the OR for subjects in the highest compared with the lowest tertile of total fibre intake was 0·47 (95 % CI 0·27, 0·86). In addition, for every 5 g/d increase in total fibre intake, the risk of incident CKD decreased by 11 %. After adjusting for potential confounders, OR for participants in the highest compared with the lowest tertile of fibre from vegetables was 0·63 (95 % CI 0·43, 0·93) and from legumes it was 0·68 (95 % CI 0·47, 0·98). We observed inverse associations between total fibre intake and risk of incident CKD, which demonstrate that high fibre intake, mainly from legumes and vegetables, may reduce the occurrence of CKD.