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This chapter reviews the functional brain imaging studies, using positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), that have examined neural activity patterns between non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and wakefulness, and within NREM sleep in association with phasic neuronal oscillations. It explores recent fMRI data investigating the relationship between these rhythms and the processing of external stimulation during sleep. In order to further explore this relationship between external stimulation and NREM sleep phasic activity, brain responses to pure tones delivered during NREM sleep were evaluated in a recent event-related fMRI study. In the fMRI study, the relationship between auditory stimulation and slow waves was also explored. It is well known that external stimulation during NREM sleep can trigger a slow wave on electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings: such evoked slow waves, especially during stage N2, are also termed K-complexes.