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In-vitro fertilization (IVF) has rapidly become a treatment for male factor infertility. Mature oocytes are inseminated in a Petri dish and examined 18 hours later for morphologic proof of fertilization. Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) is designated for women who have at least one functioning fallopian tube. Micromanipulation procedures progressed because of discouraging results with IVF for the male-factor patient. Although application of acid solutions or enzymes, and mechanical opening of the human zona pellucida have been developed, only partial zona dissection (PZD) has been successful in humans. One of the most significant risks associated with ART is the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) for aneuploidies has been performed in patients with advanced maternal age, unexplained recurrent miscarriage, recurrent implantation failure, nonobstructive and obstructive azoospermia (NOA and OA), and severe sperm morphology anomalies.
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