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Objectives: Visuospatial processing deficits have been reported in Huntington’s disease (HD). To date, no study has examined associations between visuospatial cognition and posterior brain findings in HD. Methods: We compared 119 premanifest (55> and 64<10.8 years to expected disease onset) and 104 early symptomatic (59 stage-1 and 45 stage-2) gene carriers, with 110 controls on visual search and mental rotation performance at baseline and 12 months. In the disease groups, we also examined associations between task performance and disease severity, functional capacity and structural brain measures. Results: Cross-sectionally, there were strong differences between all disease groups and controls on visual search, and between diagnosed groups and controls on mental rotation accuracy. Only the premanifest participants close to onset took longer than controls to respond correctly to mental rotation. Visual search negatively correlated with disease burden and motor symptoms in diagnosed individuals, and positively correlated with functional capacity. Mental rotation (“same”) was negatively correlated with motor symptoms in stage-2 individuals, and positively correlated with functional capacity. Visual search and mental rotation were associated with parieto-occipital (pre-/cuneus, calcarine, lingual) and temporal (posterior fusiform) volume and cortical thickness. Longitudinally, visual search deteriorated over 12 months in stage-2 individuals, with no evidence of declines in mental rotation. Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence linking early visuospatial deficits to functioning and posterior cortical dysfunction in HD. The findings are important since large research efforts have focused on fronto-striatal mediated cognitive changes, with little attention given to aspects of cognition outside of these areas. (JINS, 2016, 22, 595–608)
The effect of psychological stress on health is becoming a serious concern, with figures from the World Health Organization showing that stress-related disorders affect nearly 450 million individuals worldwide. Heightened physiological stress responses and psychosocial factors have been linked to disease pathways such as hypertension and CVD. This has prompted significant interest within the scientific community, public health bodies and industry to employ interventions to control and reduce the impact of stress on health. There is now strong potential for functional foods to offer stress management benefits. Various physiological pathways have been targeted by specific dietary supplements for stress reduction, including the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system. Presently there are a number of ingredients, which include vitamin C, milk proteins, a number of herbal extracts (ginkgo biloba, ginseng, kava, valerian and lemon balm), and n-3 fatty acids, that have demonstrated potential stress reactivity-lowering and mood-enhancing effects, although further work is required to substantiate the efficacy in human subjects. Dietary supplements that can alleviate excessive stress responses may play an increasingly important role for the maintenance of health in a stressful environment. However, future research should employ a greater range of measures that will provide stronger evidence to substantiate functional food claims for stress relief.
The history of modern or transoceanic American imperialism began midway through the nineteenth century with the achievement of definitive continental boundaries for the United States. At that juncture, the focus of the country's expansionist impulses shifted to Latin America and the Pacific Ocean area, and the quest for territorial possessions and spheres of influence in both regions began. By the turn of the century, thanks to a liberal use of armed force, it had been successfully terminated, completing the first and most robust phase of American empire building abroad.
The swelling flood of historical materials in the twentieth century has created unprecedented problems of assimilation for the historian. Both specialized researchers and those simply trying to keep abreast of what has been published find themselves in ever greater need of abstracts, comprehensive surveys, and bibliographies. That portion of the literature not outfitted with such buoys seems destined to sink beneath the inundation of new materials, to pass out of the general view into murky, seldom-explored depths where it will lie unused, perhaps soon to be altogether forgotten, whatever its intrinsic value. The voluminous writings of the British historian G. D. H. Cole, as yet unprovided with the kind of aids in question, fall into this unfortunate category. This bibliographical list and commentary has been prepared in the hope of helping remove them from it.
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